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  • Last Updated : 03 Oct, 2022
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The Great Indian Desert, notable as the Thar Desert, is a huge and parched district in the northwestern piece of the Indian subcontinent. Covering around 200,000 km2 as far as the region it frames a characteristic limit between India and Pakistan. The Thar Desert is a huge dry region covering more than 200,000 square kilometers. It fills in as a characteristic obstruction among India and Pakistan. The surface is comprised of aeolian (wind-saved) sand that has aggregated over 1.8 million years.

The scene of the desert is undulating, with high and low sand ridges separated by sandy fields and low fruitless slopes, or bhakars, that ascent abruptly from the encompassing fields.
The hills are continually moving and changing shape and size. Barchan, frequently composed as Barkhan, is a sickle molded sand hill framed by the activity of wind from a solitary course. It is one of the most pervasive types of rises and might be tracked down in sandy abandons from one side of the planet to the other. It is limited on the west by the flooded Indus River plain, on the north and upper east by the Punjab Plain, on the southeast by the Aravalli Range, and on the south by the Rann of Kachchh.

At such scope, the subtropical desert environment is brought about by supporting high tension and subsidence. The late spring storm winds that carry downpour to the majority of the subcontinent like to avoid the Thar toward the east.


The western locale of Rajasthan gets practically no precipitation. This is a direct result of the accompanying variables. The Arabian Sea part of the southwest rainstorm blows through Gujarat’s Kathiawar region and getaways toward the northwest. There are no transcending mountains to keep these breezes under control. The Aravalli range in Rajasthan runs lined up with the way of the rainstorm winds and can’t keep them from moving north. The locale’s high temperatures further develop the water maintenance limit of the breezes and lessen the probability of precipitation. These variables add to high precipitation lack, bringing about the production of the Thar desert.

Features  of Great Indian Desert

  • The Great Indian Desert stretches out from the Aravalli Hills in the upper east to Punjab and Haryana in the north, the Rann of Kutch along the western coast, and the Indus River alluvial fields in the northwest.
  • The dirt of the Great Indian Desert stays dry the entire year and is inclined to wind disintegration.
  • Fast breezes shoot strong sand from the desert, storing some of it on useful fields. The desert’s sand hills shift because of the solid breezes.
  • Because of the way that not very many neighborhood tree species can endure the serious desert environment, non-local tree species are planted.
  • Jojoba has demonstrated to be the most encouraging of these, as well as the most monetarily practical for establishing in these spots.
  • It has a dry environment with little vegetation. Due to these distinctive qualities, this is otherwise called Marusthali.
  • This region was believed to be submerged during the Mesozoic period. This is upheld by information from the Akal Wood Fossil Park and ocean stores.
  • The Luni River is the main enormous stream around here.
  • It is a water-focused locale because of little precipitation and unreasonable vanishing. A few streams stop after a specific distance and address a regular event of inland waste by joining a lake or playa.
  • The lakes and playas have saline water, which is the essential wellspring of salt.

Plant transformations

Low precipitation, extreme daylight, and dry breezes have prompted various xerophytic plant transformations. The least complex change is to have a more limited lifecycle, which is found in the desert ephemerals that develop in the primary downpours in July and cease to exist when the dirt evaporates by December, abandoning seeds that will blossom in the future one year from now.

Flora and Fauna

The fauna of bone-dry locales is correspondingly adjusted to the outrageous circumstances. Furthermore, the slow reduction of prairie/backwoods cover has added one more aspect to the battle for endurance. The predominant natural life incorporates the panther, the Asiatic wild feline (Felis silvestris ornata), the chinkara (Gazella bennettii), and the chousingha (Tetracerus quadricornis), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), the Bengal desert fox (Vulpes bengalensis) and different reptiles. 

Of the 68 species, 29 species are recorded in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, requiring changing levels of assurance. The desert felines feed on deer, rodents, bunnies, and reptiles. The enduring grasses and prickly bushes give grub to chinkara as well as the domesticated animal’s crowds of nearby networks. There are more than 141 types of transient and occupant birds in the Thar district. The fundamentally jeopardized extraordinary Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), generally used to be conveyed across 11 Indian states and even Pakistan yet the prairie patches of the Thar are presently their final fortification with under 500 sets at the last include in 2016. The weak MacQueen’s bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) and the puzzling lesser florican (Eupodotis indica) stay with it. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What is the significance of the Great Indian Desert?


In spite of having an outrageous environment, the Thar Desert can give improvement valuable open doors. These include: Mining – the desert has significant stores of minerals like feldspar, and phosphorite. These minerals are utilized to deliver a scope of things from concrete to composts and are in this manner significant.

Question 2: For what reason is the Thar Desert known as the richest desert on the planet?


The Thar desert is known as the world’s most well-off desert since it is the biggest maker of fleece in India and on the planet. What’s more, there are a few minerals found in the Thar desert like gypsum and kaolin.

Question 3: Give some illustrations of the animals and flora.


Grasslands, woods, flowering, non-flowering plants, and trees are a few examples of flora. The fauna includes, among other things, birds, animals, fish, and insects.

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