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Wildlife Sanctuary

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The term biodiversity was created by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. He used the term to refer to the variety of species found within a particular region or environment.

Biodiversity has many benefits for humans and other species. It improves ecosystem services like crop pollination, pest control, and natural waste treatment. Biodiversity also provides us with food, medicines, materials, and clean air and water.

Biodiversity is the variety of all living organisms on earth. It is the variety of species, ecosystems and habitats.

Conservation of Biodiversity

The conservation of biodiversity is the protection of species, genetic diversity within species, and ecosystems. Biodiversity is a term that refers to the variety of life forms on earth. It includes all living things – animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms – as well as the ecological complexes in which they interact.

Biodiversity plays an important role in supporting life on earth. The conservation of biodiversity aims to protect the world’s natural resources for future generations by preserving natural habitats and preventing the extinction of animal and plant species.

Conservation Types  

  1. Ex situ conservation
  2. In situ conservation 

Ex situ conservation

Conserving biodiversity outside the areas where they naturally do is known as ex situ conservation. Then, creatures and shops are reared or cultivated in areas like zoological or botanical parks. Examples: Seedbanks, botanical, horticultural, and recreational auditoriums are important centers for ex situ conservation.

In-situ conservation 

Conserving the creatures and shops in their natural territories is known as in situ conservation. This includes the establishment of

  • Nature reserves 
  • Biosphere reserves 
  • Reserved and defended timbers 
  • National parks and sanctuaries
  • Reserved timbers 
  • Preservation plots 
  • Wildlife Sanctuary

Wildlife Sanctuary  

The world is full of different types of animals. Some of them are friendly and awesome while others are dangerous predators. However, there are places in the world that offer a safe haven for these creatures. A wildlife sanctuary is one such place, designed to protect some of the most endangered and threatened animal species on the planet.  If you love animals and want to support their conservation, a wildlife sanctuary may be just what you’re looking for as a visitor. These sanctuaries tend to focus on specific types of animals or even individual species that need special care and attention outside of the general ecosystem. A wildlife sanctuary offers many benefits to both visitors and the protected animals within its walls. You can read more about these pros in this article, along with advice on how to visit your local wildlife sanctuary effectively so you get the most out of your experience.

History of Wildlife Sanctuary 

The first wildlife sanctuary in the world was established in 1872 in India. The sanctuary was established to protect the elephants that were being hunted for their ivory. The first national park in the world was established in 1878 in the United States. The park was established to protect the Yellowstone Geyser Basin.

There are now more than 1,600 wildlife sanctuaries and national parks around the world. In 1952, the Indian Wildlife Board was enacted to center all the rules and regulations applicable to wildlife conservation in India, which until also remitted from state to state. In 1956, this Board passed a corner decree that accorded all Game Parks the status of a Sanctuary or a National Park. The Wildlife sanctuaries of India are classified as IUCN Category IV covered areas. As of December 2020, 553 wildlife sanctuaries were set up in India, covering,119,776 square km. The Wildlife Board of India has identified the following as the most important:

1. Kaziranga National Park, Assam
2. Manas National Park, Assam
3. Panna National Park, Madhya Pradesh
4. Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan
5. Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan
6. Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh
7. Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh
8. Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal
9. Gir Forest National Park, Gujarat
10. The Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh


Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks play a critical role in the conservation of wildlife. They provide a place where animals can live free from the threat of poaching and habitat destruction. Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks also provide a place for researchers to conduct studies on wildlife and their ecosystems. Some of the most important functions that wildlife performs are pollination, seed dispersal, and the control of pests. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male organ of a flower to the female organ of a flower. This process is necessary for the fertilization of the ovules and the production of seeds. Pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds, are essential for pollination. Without pollinators, many plants would not be able to reproduce. Seed dispersal is the process by which seeds are spread from the parent plant to other areas. This is important for the survival of plant species, as it helps to ensure that genetic diversity is maintained. Pests are organisms that damage or destroy crops and other forms of vegetation. Wildlife helps to control pests by preying on them or by competing for their food sources. The presence of predators can help to keep pest populations in check. By eating or harassing pests, predators reduce their numbers and help to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. In addition, predators can help to prevent the spread of disease by eating diseased animals 


There are many advantages of these wildlife sanctuaries. Some of the advantages are as follows:

  • These sanctuaries help in the conservation of various species of animals.
  • They help in the maintenance of the ecological balance.
  • They help in the protection of the environment.
  • They help in the propagation of various species of animals.
  • They provide shelter to the animals.
  • They help in the education and awareness of the public about wildlife.

Measures to Protect Wildlife 

There are many things that people can do to help protect wildlife. Some of these include:

  • Supporting organizations that work to protect wild animals and their habitats.
  • Learning about the threats that different species face and taking steps to reduce our impact on their environment.
  • Avoiding the purchase of products that were made using animal skins or other parts of endangered species.
  • Refusing to participate in activities that involve the exploitation or mistreatment of wild animals, such as hunting, fishing, or trapping. 
  • Supporting organizations that work to protect and conserve wildlife habitats. 

Projects taken by the Indian government to protect vulnerable species 

  • Project tiger
  • Crocodile Breeding Project 
  • Lesser Cats  Project 
  • The Manipur Brow-antlered Deer Project
  • Project Elephant
  • Project Rhino
  • Himalayan musk deer  Project 
  • project Hangul  

 Protection of Endangered Species

The following actions have been made by the government to conserve the country’s threatened and endangered wild animal species:-

  • Under the terms of the Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972, wild animals are legally protected from being hunted and exploited for commercial purposes.
  • The Wild Life Protection Act of 1972 has been revised and strengthened. The Act’s penalties for violations have been strengthened. The Act further stipulates that any tools, vehicles, or weapons used to commit wildlife offenses must be forfeited.
  • Under the provisions of the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972, Protected Areas, including National Parks, Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves, and Community Reserves, covering significant wildlife habitats have been established throughout the nation to preserve wild animals.
  • Under the Centrally Sponsored Schemes of “Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats,” “Project Tiger,” and “Project Elephant,” financial and technical support is given to the State/Union Territory Governments in order to improve wildlife protection and habitat.
  • The Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972 gives the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) the authority to capture and prosecute wildlife criminals.
  • It has been urged that the State/Union Territory Governments beef up their field formations and increase patrols in and around the Protected Areas.
  • The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau was established to bolster the legal system’s ability to combat poaching and the illegal trade in wildlife and its byproducts.
  • Officials from State Departments of maintaining strict surveillance.

The rhinoceros and Asiatic lion, two species whose protection is Emphasized, have shown improvement in the status of their populations, according to periodic surveys.
As part of the centrally sponsored scheme of “Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats,” the Ministry of Environment & Forests also gives financial support to State Governments for “Recovery Programmes for rescuing critically endangered species.” This component’s budget is not given a distinct allocation. Currently, sixteen species have been given priority for the implementation of such recovery programs, including the Snow Leopard, Bustards (including Floridians), River Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine Turtles, Dugongs, and coral reefs, Edible-nest Swiftlets, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered deer, Vultures, Malabar civet, Great One-horned Rhinoceros. 

FAQs on Wildlife Sanctuary

Question 1: Conservation of biodiversity aims to protect the world’s natural resources for future generations by what?


Preserving Natural Habitats And Preventing Extinction Of Animal And Plant Species

Question 2: What is the Impact of Biodiversity on Human Beings?


Biodiversity has many benefits for humans and other species. It improves ecosystem services like crop pollination, pest control, and natural waste treatment. Biodiversity also provides us with food, medicines, materials, and clean air and water.

Question 3: How many types of Biodiversity Conservations are there?


There are two types, they are 

  • Ex situ conservation
  • In situ conservation 

Question 4: How does wildlife help to control pests?


By Preying On Them Or By Competing For Their Food Sources.

Question 5: What is the aim of the government to Enact the Bills on the Environment and Ecosystem?


The main aim of the government for rescuing critically endangered species, Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats, wild animals are legally protected from being hunted and exploited, for the Conservation of Biodiversity and also  Maintenance Of The Ecological Balance

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Last Updated : 05 Oct, 2022
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