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Tropical Evergreen Forests in India

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 16 Jun, 2022
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Climate, soil, and topography are the key determinants of a location’s Natural Vegetation. Rainfall and temperature are the two important factors that affect the climate. The amount of annual rainfall has a significant impact on the vegetation type. In the Himalayas and other mountainous places with elevations of more than 900 metres, the temperature is a crucial impact. In the Himalayan region, as the temperature drops with height, the vegetation transforms from tropical to sub-tropical, temperate, and finally alpine. In a few areas, the soil is an equally important determining element.

Mangrove forests and swamp forests are two examples of ecosystems where the soil is a crucial component. Certain minor types, such as alpine flora and tidal woods, are influenced by geography. There are 12 countries in the world with a high level of bio variety, and India is one of them. The FLORA and FAUNA of India are diverse. With over 47000 plant species, India ranks tenth in the world and fourth in Asia in terms of the plant variety. India has about 15000 flowering plants, accounting for about 6% of all flowering plants on the planet. Ferns, algae, and fungi are examples of non-flowering plants found in India. India boasts a total of 80000 kinds of creatures in its fresh and marine waters, as well as a diverse range of fish.

Tropical Evergreen Forests 

Tropical Evergreen Forests is one of the five types of vegetation. This forest can be found in regions of the Western slopes of the Western Ghats, both Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, upper parts of Assam and coasts of Tamil Nadu, also can be found in heavy rainfall areas where annual rainfall is 200 cm. These forests are also known as Tropical Rainforests.

Tropical evergreen woods, tropical semi-evergreen forests, and tropical monsoon forests may be found on the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus is the major species of Keruing wood in steep places, whereas Dipterocarpus kerrii is prevalent on several islands in the archipelago’s south.

The Andaman Redwood (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) and Terminalia spp. dominate the Andaman monsoon woods. The tropical woods of India’s east are diametrically opposed to the pine and coniferous woodlands of the Western Himalayas. The natural cover of India varies with height; these evergreen woods are limited at higher elevations by high alpine meadows and at lower elevations by temperate forests with short sturdy trees. Deciduous trees, bushes, bamboo, ferns, and grass grow on the Himalayan foothills. 

The tropical vegetation of northeast India (which includes the states of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya, as well as the plains of Arunachal Pradesh) grows at elevations of up to 900 metres (3,000 ft). Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, wet deciduous monsoon forests, riparian forests, marshes, and grasslands are all part of it. Evergreen forests may be found in the Assam Valley, the eastern Himalayan foothills, and the lower sections of the Naga Hills, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Manipur when the annual rainfall surpasses 2,300 mm (91 in). 

Characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forests 

  • The trees of tropical evergreen forests reach great heights up to 60 m or above and have abundant vegetation with creepers and bushes.
  • Tropical rainforests are found to remain wet and warm throughout the year.
  • This forest has luxuriant vegetation of all kinds like trees, shrubs and creepers giving it a multilayer structure.
  • In this forest, there is no particular time for trees to shed their leaves, and these forests are green throughout the year.
  • These trees are useful for commercial purposes. Example: Ebony, Mahogany, cinchona, rubber etc
  • Some of the common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkeys, lemur and deer, one-horned rhinoceros are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal.
  • The average temperature of tropical deciduous forests is 30°C.

Sample Questions 

Question 1:  Give two importance of forests?

Answer:

Two importance of forests are,

  • Forests are very essential for enhancing the quality of environment.
  • Forests are helpful in modify local climate, reduce soil erosion, regulate stream flow, provide raw materials for industries and livelihood for many communities.

Question 2: For what purpose is Arjun the medicinal plant used?

Answer:

In India there are so many of herbs and species available from ancient times, almost 2000 plants have been described in Ayurveda. Here Arjun the medicinal plant is used to regulate blood pressure, its fresh juice is a cure for earache.

Question 3: Give two geographical factors responsible for the diversification of Flora?

Answer:

About 15000 flowering plant are there in India which is six percent of total world’s flowering plants. India has many non flowering plants like ferns , algae and fungi. The factors which are responsible for the diversification of flora are: Climate Factors, Terrains and Soils.

Question 4: Why the tropical forests are not found in semi-arid regions?

Answer:

The tropical forests are not found in semi arid region because of the high temperature and less rainfall .

Question 5: India is home to a diverse range of plants. What are the three geographical elements that are responsible for the diversity of flora?

Answer:

India is home to a diverse range of plants. The nation has over 47000 plant species and 15000 blooming plants. The following causes are responsible for India’s diverse flora:

  • A variety of relief characteristics
  • Diverse Landforms
  • Soils and Terrains
  • Climatic Variables.
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