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Transportation in India – Roadways, Railways, Pipelines, Waterways, Airways

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  • Last Updated : 19 Sep, 2022
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There are several strategies for transportation in our day-to-day routine. Development of labor and product is often north of 3 vital areas of our earth for instance land, water and air. seeable of those, transport will likewise be ordered into the land – streetways that, railways, pipelines, etc. water – abroad, landlocked then forth and three air transport-private aircraft, worldwide aviation routes, native aviation routes, public endeavor.


Rail routes are the necessary methodology of transportation for cargos and travelers in India. They permit people to direct totally different exercises like business, moving or journey aboard transportation of merchandise over longer distances. Rail transport is most well-liked coordinated over another vehicle of transport. it’s fastened courses and timetables. Its administration are additional certain, uniform and traditional contrasted with totally different strategies of transport. Rail transport began from human force contraptions in the previous Balkan states. Presently it’s developed into a leading edge, the puzzling and refined framework used in metropolitan and cross-country (and mainland) networks over vital distances.

Rail transport has arisen collectively as the foremost trustworthy strategy of transport with regards to somewhere safe and secure. Trains are fast and also the most un-impacted by common climate turbulences like rain or haze, contrasted with alternative vehicle instruments. Rail transport is an associate degree empowering agent of financial advancement, accustomed activate merchandise further as people. Variations incorporate traveller rail lines, underground railroad metro railroads and merchandise carriages.

The Indian Railways are an out-of-this-world coordinating power for quite a very long time. They speed up the advancement of business and agriculture, apart from limiting the state monetarily. Rail transport contains a few necessities and limits furthermore. most likely the best limitation of rail transport is the weighty expense. Trains want high funding to fabricate and maintain and also the expense is amplified once a whole rail network is to be assembled. The Indian Railways have a company of seven,133 stations adjoin a course length of sixty-four,460 km.

The expense of development, repairs and upward prices are very high contrasted with totally different strategies of transport. Likewise, rail transport cannot supply houses to deal with help because it is hooked up to a selected track. Halfway stacking or marketing includes additional noteworthy expense, additional mileage, and wastage of your time.


India has one in every of the most important street networks on the world, aggregation to around fifty four.7 lakh km. India has one in every of the most important street networks on the world, accumulating to around two.3 million kilometre as of currently. The developing significance of street transport and rail transport is established for the incidental reasons:

  • Streets will prepare higher inclinations of slants and in and of itself will cross mountains just like the chain, in addition, offers house to deal with help, consequently, the expense of stacking and marketing may be a heap of lower.
  • Street transport is likewise used as a feeder to totally different strategies of transport, for instance, they furnish an association between railway line stations, and air and ocean ports.
  • The development value of streets may be a heap below that of railroad lines, streets will cross nearly additional analyzed and undulating
  • Street transport is reasonable in transportation of few individuals and moderately smaller live of product over temporary distances.

In India, streets area unit are ordered in many varieties as per their ability, they are,

  1. Brilliant Quadrilateral Super Highways: The general public authority has sent off a big street improvement project connecting Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai conjointly, city by six-path Super Highways. The North-South hallways connecting Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West passageway interfacing Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) area unit are necessary for this endeavor. The significant goal of those Super Highways is to decrease the time and distance between the super urban communities of India. This route comes area unit being administered by the National main road Authority of India
  2. Different Roads: Country streets, that interface rustic regions, and cities with cities, area units ordered underneath this classification. These streets got distinctive information underneath the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
  3. Public Highways: The National interstates area unit is a company of trunk streets that area unit set and preserved by the Central construction Department (CPWD). The authentic Sher-Shah Suri Marg is named National main road No.1, among the city and Amritsar.
  4. Local Roads: These streets associate the scene base camp with totally different spots of the region. These street area units are preserved by the Zila Parishad.


The air is that the fastest, most agreeable and lofty methodology of transport. In will cowl, undeniably difficult landscapes like high mountains, vast deserts, thick timberlands and long maritime stretches effortlessly. transportation was nationalized in 1953.

Indian Airlines, Alliance Air (auxiliary of Indian Airlines), confidential engaged carriers and non-planned directors offer native air administrations and Air India provides international air administrations. Indian Airlines tasks likewise reach bent on the contiguous nations of South and South-East Asia and also the Middle East. As aviation routes are the costlier mode, it is not within the span of average people.

Pawan-Hans Helicopters restricted provides heavier-than-air craft administrations to grease and gas Corporation (ONGC) in its seaward tasks, to distant regions and difficult landscapes just like the North-Eastern states and also the within items of Jammu and Cashmere, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Just North-Eastern territories of India have exceptional arrangements to create air administrations accessible to the typical voters.


Stor⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠ms are the smallest amount overpriced methodology for transport. it’s eco-friendly, climate cordial and acceptable for conveyancing weighty and large merchandise.

Inland Waterway: India has landlocked route streams of around fourteen,500 kilometers long out of that five,685 kilometre area unit passable by machine-driven boats. There are associate degree alternative landlocked streams on that transportation to a degree happens. they’re Mandavi,Zuari and Cumbarjua, Sundarbans, Barak, backwaters of Kerala and flowing stretches of some further streams.

Significant ocean Ports

  • India’s exchange with remote nations is sent from the ports. There are two vital and two hundred told non-majors (minor/middle) ports in India.
  • Here is a summary of serious ports in India, they are,
  • Mumbai is that the greatest port with a spacious traditional and extremely abundant secure harbor. Marmagao port (Goa) is that the head iron metal commerce port of India.
  • Visakhapatnam is the most profound inland and everyone around the safeguarded port
    Parad-WIP port placed in Odisha, has sensible expertise within the artefact of iron mineral.
  • Kandla in Kachchh was the principal port to be created when autonomy. it’s otherwise known as the Deendayal Port.
  • Mangalore port, placed in Mysore takes special care of the merchandise of iron mineral. Kochi is the super south-western port, placed at the entry of a periodic event lake.
  • Tuticorin port is organized in the super southeast. city is one in every of the foremost established faux ports of India.
  • Vishakhapatnam is that the most profound inland and every one around safeguarded port nine. Paradip port placed in Odisha has sensible expertise within the product of iron metal.
  • Kolkata is associate degree landlocked riverine port. Haldia port was created as an associate degree auxiliary port, to ease developing tension on the Kolkata port.

Public Waterways in India

N.W. No.1 – The Ganga waterway between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km).

N.W. No.2 – The river waterway between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km).

N.W. No.3 – The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Kollam, Udyoga mandal and Champakkras canals-205 km).

N.W. No.4 – specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna waterways aboard Kakinada Puducherry stretch of channels (1078 km).

N.W. No.5 – specified stretches of stream Brahmani aboard black pine waterway, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani streams, and geographic region Canal (588 km).


These are used for shipping unrefined crude oil, oil based mostly commodities and ignitible gas from oil and ignitible gas fields to process plants, manure industrial facilities and enormous atomic energy stations. Solids will likewise be captive through a pipeline once modified over into suspension and to ship water between varied urban areas.

There are unit 3 vital organizations of pipeline transportation within the country. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat associates Jagdishpur in the state, by means that of Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. it branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Bab-rala, and totally different spots in the state. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in a geographical region, through Viramgam, Mathura, city, and Sonipat. it’s branches to interface Koyali (close to Vadodara,Gujarat) Chakshu and totally different spots. From oil fields in higher Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), through Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. it branches from Barauni to Haldia, by means that of Raj-bandh, Raj-bandh to Mauri-gram, and Guwahati to Siliguri.

Sample Question

Question 1: Characterise roads based on the material used to build them?


There are unit 2 types of streets that are sorted supported form of material used, they are

  • Un-metalled or caliche-topped streets are often of assorted types. they will be ‘mud’ streets, which may serve dry-season light-weight traffic. they will likewise be inflexible press rock trendy streets which may serve weighty traffic.
  • Metalled streets may be products of concrete, concrete or maybe hydrocarbon of coal. during this manner, these areas unit climate streets.

Question 2: What are Line streets?


  • Line streets have more developed openness in areas of difficult territory and have helped the financial advancement of those areas.
  • The Border Roads Organization (BRO) builds and keeps up with streets within the line region of the country.
  • It was begun in 1960 for the advancement of streets of important significance within the Northern and North-Eastern line region of the country.

Question 3: What are the problems related to street transport?


There are some problems looked by the road transportation they’re,

  • High snarl-up on streets in urban areas. extensions and ducts (burrows) associating streets area unit previous and restricted at several spots.
  • Numerous streets are un-metalled, attributable to that transportation is difficult throughout the blustery season. The deficient reach of National Highways in several spots.

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