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Tissue Culture Plants

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  • Last Updated : 02 Jul, 2022

Over the centuries, farms and cultivation fields are feeding everyone on the planet. However, in the last few decades, with the increasing population and colonization, the shrinking of land is making it difficult to enough plant food along with challenging weather conditions. 
Hence, Tissue culture was introduced as an alternative cultivation method compound with conventional techniques to develop a large number of genetically identified plants from one single plant, called the parent plant. It is extensively used for the mass production of disease-free commercial plants.

What is Tissue Culture Plant?

Tissue Culture Plant is an accumulation of techniques used to grow plants in sterilized and controlled conditions of light, temperature, and humidity. The cells, tissues, and other small segments of plants are composted on a chemically-define synthetic nutrient medium for their growth and development.
Also known as micropropagation, the Tissue Culture method helps you to grow a whole replica of plants by genetically modifying the inner parts of a particular plant in quicker succession.
Once the new plants are hatched successfully, they are transferred to a more natural environment, either a greenhouse or a nursery, for productive and healthy mature growth.

Different Types of Tissue Culture Plants:

A. Seed Culture:

In this culture, seeds are cultivated in the in vitro culture ad introduced to an artificial environment to prevent any damage to the cells and develop healthy plants.

B. Embryo Culture:

Mature embryos are taken from ripe seeds however immature ones are extracted from the dead seeds. The embryo is separated from the organism and introduced to an in-vitro environment.

C. Callus Culture:

This culture helps in the production and maintenance of an unorganized mass of dividing cells by developing them on an artificial nutrient base in a flask or glass vial under chemically-induced controlled conditions.

D. Organ Culture:

Any organ of the plant including leaf, root, and stem can be influenced as an explant. Several organ culture methods such as plasma cot, grid, raft, and agar gel methods are implemented to preserve the structure and function of the organisms.

E. Protoplast Culture:

This can be described as a cell without a cell wall surrounded by the plasma membrane, which is capable of cell wall generation, division, and plant regeneration with healthy growth on a suitable medium.

Process For a High-End Plant Growth:

Start with the selection of plant tissues from a healthy mother plant that can be used as an explant through Micropropagation.
It is an artificial process that facilitates the growth, maintenance, and repository of a large number of plants in small spaces, which is a cost-effective process for local farmers as well.

1. Preparation of Donor Plant:

The ex-vitro mother plant materials such as leaf, stem, or root should be cultivated in extreme optimal and controlled conditions to enhance productivity and minimize the contamination in the in vitro culture.

2. Initiation Stage:

When the explant surface is sterilized, tissue samples then are transferred into an Agar growth nutrient medium under light or dark conditions according to the method of propagation.

3. Multiplication Stage:

The sterilized explant in this method is introduced into the medium formed through appropriate growth regulators and nutrients to increase the number of propagules.

4. Rooting Stage:

The roots start to form, sometimes simultaneously with the multiplication stage in the same cultural environment. In some cases, it requires changing the environment including nutrient modification and growth regulators composition for inducing and forming stronger, non-contaminated roots.

5. Acclimatization Stage:

When the in vitro plants are developed, they are then shifted to the greenhouse to grow in a controlled environment. After under observation, the plants were finally transferred to the nursery to grow in a natural environment.

Is it Possible to perform Tissue Culture in any Plant?

Through Tissue Culture, the reproduction process in plant yield increases dramatically stronger and in a shorter period of time. Hence, it is important to select plant materials wisely to introduce in a tissue culture process that is free of bacterium and contamination. 
The tissue culture method can be implemented on any plant that has a high level of Totipotency, that is, the plant cells that can regenerate themselves from explants matters such as a stem, leaves, or root, into mature plants.

Some Common Challenges Faced with Plant Tissue Culture:

It is a lot of work to put in for running an effective in vitro culture, hence requires more labor and space that may cost more than you’ve budgeted. Along with this issue, there are a few common challenges you may face, like:

  • Inadequate selection of nutrient medium, causing hormonal imbalance.
  • Contamination is the most common problem in tissue culture planting including bacteria, fungi, and yeast.
  • A right-constructed laboratory with a washing room, appropriate sterilization, and growth room is a must for successful cultures and reducing contamination sources.
  • Right usage of antibiotics helps in enhancing the growth of the plant tissue like Streptomycin, Rifampicin, and Cefotaxime.
  • The release of Oxidized stress of phenol may lead to browning of explants that reduces the cell division pace and capacity of regeneration.
  • Concentrated somaclonal variations may influence genetic variability.

Advantages of Tissue Culture:

Tissue Culture Planting has direct commercial applications and basic biological, genetic, and biochemistry research. This approach can help agriculturists with-

  • Developing improved plants from interspersed explants.
  • A minimum amount of explant tissue is required.
  • The cultural method is not dependent on environmental factors and can be practiced throughout the year.

Conclusion:

On the best side, the Tissue Culture process can help in preserving the survival of rare plants and endangered species.
Before hitting the Tissue Culture process on plants, require some basic and practical knowledge. It will help you understand what factors may contribute to affecting the productivity, and how plants function in your setup environment.

 

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