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Tin (II) Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 01 May, 2022

Tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride) is a white crystalline substance with the formula Plantilla: TinPlantilla: Chlorine2. It produces a stable dihydrate, but aqueous solutions, especially if heated, are prone to hydrolysis. SnCl2 is commonly employed as a reducing agent (in acid solution) and in tin-plating electrolytic baths. Tin(II) chloride is not to be confused with tin(IV) chloride, often known as stannic chloride (SnCl4).

Tin (II) Chloride 

The molecule SnCl2 in the gas phase has a lone pair of electrons, causing it to bend. Crystalline SnCl2 produces chains with chloride bridges in the solid-state. The dihydrate is also three-coordinated, with one water coordinated to the tin and the other to the first. The “second” water is sandwiched between the layers as the primary component of the molecule stacks into double layers in the crystal lattice.

Tin Chloride structure

 

Physical Properties of Tin (II) chloride

Molecular formula

SnCl2

Molar mass

189.60 g/mol (anhydrous)
225.63 (dihydrate)

Appearance

White crystalline solid

Density

3.95 g/cm³, anhydrous solid
2.71 g/cm³, dihydrate (15 °C)

Melting point

246 °C (519 K)

Boiling point

623 °C (896 K)

Solubility in water

83.9 g/100 ml (0 °C)
Hydrolyses in hot water

Chemical properties of Tin (II) chloride

  • Tin(II) chloride can dissolve in less than its own mass of water without breakdown, but as the solution is diluted, hydrolysis occurs, resulting in the formation of an insoluble basic salt.

SnCl2 + H2O ↔ Sn(OH)Cl + HCl

  • Tin(II) chloride is a Lewis acid that forms compounds with ligands like chloride ions.

SnCl2 + CsCl → CsSnCl3

  • When alkali is added to an SnCl2 solution, a white precipitate of hydrated tin(II) oxide forms first, which dissolves in excess base to generate stannite salts like sodium stannite.

SnCl2 + 2NaOH → SnO·H2O + 2NaCl

SnO·H2O + NaOH → NaSn(OH)3

  • The yellow linear two-coordinate chemical Sn(OAr)2 (Ar = aryl) is formed when the lithium salt of 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol interacts with SnCl2 in THF.

Uses of Tin Chloride

  1. Tin Chloride is used as a powerful reducing agent.
  2. It’s used in the production of pharmaceuticals.
  3. Ink stains are removed with this product.
  4. In lubricating oils, it is used as an addition.
  5. As a catalyst, it’s used.
  6. Color pigments are made with this material.
  7. It’s used to tin-plate steel.
  8. In radionuclide angiography, it is used.
  9. In textile dyeing, it’s used as a mordant.
  10. Polylactic acid is used to make plastic.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What is the composition of Tin Chloride?

Answer:

Tin-cans are made from a solution of tin(II) chloride and a tiny amount of hydrochloric acid for tin-plating pipes. An electric potential is provided, and tin metal is created at the cathode through electrolysis.

Question 2: Why tin chloride is covalent in nature?

Answer:

Sn has an oxidation state of +2 in SnCl2 . Fajan’s rule states that the centre metal with the highest oxidation number is the most covalent. As a result, SnCl4 has a higher covalent value than SnCl2.

Question 3: What are the uses of Tin Chloride?

Answer:

  1. This substance is used to create colour pigments.
  2. Tin-plate steel is what it’s used for.
  3. It’s utilised in radionuclide angiography.
  4. It’s used as a mordant in textile dyeing.
  5. Plastic is made from polylactic acid.

Question 4: What will happen when SnCl2 reacts with alkali?

Answer:

A white precipitate of hydrated tin(II) oxide occurs when alkali is added to a SnCl2 solution.

SnCl2 + 2NaOH → SnO·H2O + 2NaCl

Question 5: What will happen when the lithium salt of 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol interacts with SnCl2?

Answer:

When the lithium salt of 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol reacts with SnCl2 in THF, the yellow linear two-coordinate chemical Sn(OAr)2 (Ar = aryl) is produced.

Question 6: What is Tin Chloride?

Answer:

Tin dichloride, Dichlorotin, Tin Protochloride, and Stannous chloride are all names for tin (II) chloride. It has a lone pair of electrons in the gaseous phase, where the molecule is bent.

It appears as a crystalline white substance with no odour. When consumed, it is poisonous, and it irritates the eyes and skin when it comes into touch with them. It’s frequently utilised in the pharmaceutical industry, as a tanning agent, and in the dye industry.

Question 7: What is a Confirmatory Test for Stannous Ion Presence in Tin(II) Chloride?

Answer:

The confirmatory test for stannous ion in Tin(II) Chloride is one of the most often performed laboratory experiments. To begin, create a 1:20 solution of the chemical in weak hydrochloric acid. Tin(II) Chloride is easily dissolved by hydrochloric acid, and the resulting solution can be obtained without the use of heat. Dropwise add mercuric chloride to the resulting solution, which will result in a white or greyish precipitate.

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