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  • Last Updated : 13 Jul, 2022

The Renaissance refers ‘Rebirth.’ (Rebirth is a French word). The Renaissance was rebirth of classical life and knowledge (learning).
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that in the beginning started in Florence then it reached in Italy but later it covered whole Europe. This Renaissance period  started approx 1350 and ended around 1600.
 

The Renaissance:-   

It means ‘Rebirth’ (French Word). The Renaissance also saw the discovery and exploration of new territories, the replacement of the Ptolemaic system of astronomy with the Copernican system, the decline of feudalism and the rise of commerce, and the invention or application of potentially powerful innovations such as paper, printing, the mariner’s the compass and gunpowder. However, it was essentially a moment of the resurgence of classical learning and wisdom for intellectuals and thinkers of the day, following a lengthy period of cultural decline and stagnation.

Important Points 

  • This (Medieval) time is known as the Dark Ages.
  • Because of the war, famine and disease.
  • During the 1300s the Plague spread in the whole of Europe like wildfire but ultimately made good changes in business and trade in places like Italy. The tragedy is known as the Black Death.
  •  For the first time, French historian Jules Michele coined the term “Renaissance.
  • With the literary works of Date Alighieri and Petrarch, the term Renaissance was popularised.
  • A revitalised interest in Classical Greek and Roman learning and values marked the Renaissance period.
  • Humanism was the first movement to capture the essence of the Renaissance. Secular scholars and others broke free from religious orthodoxy, engaged in free inquiry and critique, and found faith in the capabilities of human thought and creativity as a result of humanism.
  • The majority of Renaissance architecture and artwork was supported by wealthy business families in Florence, such as the Medici. By commissioning Hugo van der Goes‘ The Portinari Altarpiece, one of the greatest Flemish painters of the second half of the 15th century, the Medici dynasty introduced oil painting to Italy.
  • The High Renaissance flourished from the early 1490s to 1527. The three most well-known figures from this time are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

Geniuses

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 to 1519) — (Leonardo) was an Italian painter, architect, inventor and the “Renaissance Person”. And he (Leonardo da Vinci) made Famous Painting of “The Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper” 
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) — (Rene Descartes) was a French Philosopher and mathematician and he is also regarded as the father of modern philosophy. The statement “I think; therefore I am” was stated by him.
Galileo (1564-1642) — (Galileo) was an Italian astronomer, a physicist and an engineer whose brilliant work with telescopes empowered him to describe Jupiter’s moons and Saturn’s rings
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 to1543) — He (Nicolaus) was a mathematician and an astronomer who invented the first modern scientific argument for a heliocentric solar system. 
Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) — He (Geoffrey) was an English poet and author of “The Canterbury Tales.”
Dante (1265-1321) — (Dante) was an Italian philosopher, poet, writer and political thinker who wrote “The Divine Comedy.”
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 to1527) — (Niccolo Machiavelli) was a philosopher and an Italian diplomat who (Machiavelli) is famous for his writing “The Prince” and “The Discourses on Livy. ”
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) — (William Shakespeare) was a “National Poet” of England and he is the most famous playwright of all time. He is celebrated for his sonnets and plays like “Romeo and Juliet.”
Raphael (1483 to 1520) — (Raphael) was an Italian painter who (Raphael) learned from da Vinci and Michelangelo. He is  known for his paintings of the ‘Madonna’ and ‘The School of Athens.’
Michelangelo (1475-1564) — (Michelangelo) was an Italian sculptor, painter, and architect.

  • Famous journeys were taken by Ferdinand Magellan, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci (after whom America named), and Marco Polo.

Protestant

In the 16th century, a German monk named Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation, a revolutionary movement that split the Catholic church. Martin Luther challenged many of the church’s procedures, questioning whether they were in line with the Bible’s principles. Protestantism emerged as a new form of Christianity as a result of this.
By the early 17th century, the Renaissance movement had died out, giving way to the Age of Enlightenment.

Questions based on Renaissance

1) What actual means of Renaissance?
a) Rejoin 
b) Rebirth
c) War
d) Recompilation
Ans. B 
(The actual meaning of  Renaissance is ‘Rebirth.’ (Rebirth is a French word).
 

2) What Renaissance was?
a) Cultural
b) Secular
c) Socialist
d) a and b 
Ans. A 
(The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spread in Europe)
 

3) Which type of Rebirth shows Renaissance?
a) Classical life
b) Learning 
c) Both
d) None
Ans. C 
(The Renaissance was the rebirth of classical life and knowledge (learning).
 

4) Renaissance started from-
a) Germany 
b) Poland
c) America
d) Florence
Ans. D 
(The Renaissance was a cultural movement that is starting covered the Florence)
 

5) The Renaissance spread in which continent of the world?
a) China
b) Japan
c) America
d) Europe
Ans. D
(The Renaissance started in Florence but later this movement covered the whole of Europe)
 

6) By whom The Mona Lisa painting was made?
a) Shakespeare
b) Galileo
c) Leonardo da Vinci
d) all of them made with their help
Ans. C
(Famous painting of Mona Lisa was made by Leonardo da Vinci)
 

7) America was named after-
a) Marco Polo 
b) Amerigo Vespucci 
c) Vasco Da Gama
d) None of them
Ans. B
(America was named after Amerigo Vespucci)
 

8) Who was Martin Luther and when did he protest?
a) German Monk, 16th Century
b) Indian artist
c) Italian Monk, 17th Century
d) American Writer,  16th Century
Ans. A
(Martin Luther was a German Monk who protested in the 16th Century. He questioned many of the practices of the Church)
 

9) When Renaissance ended up
a) Early 17th Century
b) Late 17th Century
c) Late 18th Century
d) Early 18th Century
Ans. A
(The Renaissance ended up in the early 17th Century)
 

10) By whom “The Discourses on Livy” was written by
a) Geoffrey Chaucer
b) Rene Descartes 
c) Raphael
d) Niccolo Machiavelli
Ans. D 
(“The Prince” and “The Discourses on Livy” was written by Niccolo Machiavelli)
 

11) Who has written “The Canterbury Tales?”
a) Rene Descartes 
b) Geoffrey Chaucer
c) Niccolo Machiavelli
d) Michelangelo
Ans. B 
(English poet and author of “The Canterbury Tales.”)
 

12) By whom “The Divine Comedy” was written?
a) Michelangelo
b) Geoffrey Chaucer
c) Rene Descartes 
d) Dante
Ans. D 
( Italian philosopher, poet, writer and political thinker who authored “The Divine Comedy.”)
 

13) Who stated The term Renaissance?
a) Geoffrey Chaucer
b) Michelangelo
c) Raphael
d) Niccolo Machiavelli
Ans. A
( The term Renaissance was started by French historian Jules Michel for the first time)
 

14) Nicolaus Copernicus was ?
a)  Writer and astronomer
b) Painter and astronomer
c)  Mathematician and astronomer
d) all of the above
Ans. C
(Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician and astronomer who made the first modern scientific argument)
 


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