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The Nation Sixty Years On

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After its independence in August 1947, India confronted gigantic difficulties. A portion of the significant difficulties are as per the following:
India has gone into its seventeen years of freedom. The greatest accomplishment of the country is the progression of vote based type of government. In the hour of freedom, numerous unfamiliar onlookers had anticipated that India wouldn’t have the option to get by as a solitary country. The colossal variety of India was the premise of their worries. In any case, we are partaking in the products of a majority rules system, free legal executive, and free media.

Financial variations actually endure in the country. The rank-based imbalance continues in many pieces of provincial India. Public brutality has additionally occurred every once in a while.

  • India is as yet joined together and it is as yet fair.
  • There is a free press.
  • There is an autonomous legal executive
  • Solidarity in variety
  • Profound divisions continue
  • In spite of sacred assurance, the untouchables or the Dalits face viciousness and segregation.
  • The inlet between the rich and the poor has developed throughout the long term.

India gained freedom specifically through a sustained, non-violent battle regarding the sacrifice of thousands of human beings, mainly underneath the management of Tilak, Gandhi, Nehru and Bose. India became a free us of a on 15 August 1947. India was partitioned, and a brand new kingdom – Pakistan – changed into created. India has followed a democratic-socialist route for its improvement and development. It followed a brand new Constitution which changed into carried out on 26 January 1950.

The Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to the citizens of India, ensuring equality, freedom and justice. Besides the fundamental rights, the Constitution also outlines directives for kingdom coverage a good way to give a favored direction to social and economic trade in India.

Equality earlier than Law

Today, there is ‘rule of law’ in India. All residents are same and problem to the jurisdiction of the identical authority. Even, the privy handbags, granted to the princes and feudal lords, were abolished in the past due sixties. Birth is no more the idea of recognizing status and energy. Religion, language, caste or ethnicity are not recollections for supplying social honor and privileges.

However, the weaker sections of Indian society, specially the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the Scheduled Tribes (STs), and Other Backward Classes (OBCs), have been furnished unique facilities and provisions for their upliftment. They are protected against discrimination and exploitation via the dominant sections of Indian society. Women have equality with guys. All the residents of India have the right to vote at all the tiers of our political machine.

Progress in Education

There has been great progress in the area of schooling. More than 100 million kids acquire training on the primary stage. The increase in numbers on the secondary stage is also dazzling. Education at college and college stages has also increased distinctly. Today, there are about three hundred universities in India. Diver­sification of schooling at senior school, college and university degrees has also been taken up through the Government of India. Basic schooling is being furnished at the fundamental stage. Today, at senior school and university ranges, emphasis is being placed on vocationalisation, pc studies, implemented sciences, control and on some other applicable and gainful fields of expertise to address the trouble of unemployment some of the educated younger males and females.

In 1986, a new Education Policy became implemented with the aid of the Government of India setting greater emphasis at the satisfactory of education specifically on the school degree. Special attention has been given to the schooling of the SCs and STs, girls and backward sections.

Education has promoted migration of humans from villages to towns and cities. There is an increased emphasis on Hindi and other countrywide languages. The coverage of learning 3 languages on the faculty level has been implemented in all of the states of the Union of India.

National Consolidation

States of India had been reorganized in 1955 on the basis of the recom­mendations made through the States Reorganization Commission. Since this turned into finished on the basis of the language spoken with the aid of the human beings, each nation has some cultural cohesiveness.

India become characterized by using the unique sort of feudalism below which the rajas, thikanedars, jagirdars and zamindars were treated as Mai-Baap (mother and father). To begin with, the authorities abolished such patri­monial feudalism, and in the end also abolished the privy purses and compensations granted to the rajas.

This became honestly a ‘revolu­tionary’ step because the tenants have been granted possession rights. The institution of zamindars as intermediaries became eliminated with the stroke of a pen. Later on, the consolidation of small landholdings and ceilings on maximum landholdings have been taken up as measures of land reforms. The Green Revolution has been made feasible due to those reforms, and additionally due to adoption of recent era, fertilizers and seeds in the subject of agriculture. India is today self-enough in food-grains, whereas inside the fifties and early sixties it depended upon united states of America and some different countries for its requirement of meals-grains.

Five-Year Plans and Socio-Economic Changes

In the sector of industry as properly, India has made a whole lot of progress because independence. Heavy industries at Hatia, Rourkela, Bokaro, Sindri, Bangalore and other locations have been set up within the fifties and sixties. Small-scale and cottage industries have also received the eye of the authorities.

Industrialization has been viable due to the fact India followed the route of planned monetary development and social change. The Planning Commission of India was assigned the project of making plans. The authorities has followed its coverage of ‘combined financial system’, a policy of balanced growth of the private, the general public, and the joint sectors.

The Community Development Programmes (CDPs) have been started out on 2 October 1952 for the uplift of the agricultural humans. To triumph over some of the impediments in the implementation of these schemes, the Panchayati Raj scheme turned into added on 2 October 1959″, first of all within the states of Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. The elected leaders of the agricultural people at three degrees, viz., the village, the block and the district, had been given the responsibility of imple­menting the developmental schemes in view of the ‘felt desires’ of the agricultural lessons.

Several schemes have been performed for the welfare of the urban humans and of these running in industries. Today, the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) enjoy statutory repute just like the legislatures and Lok Sabha based totally at the provisions of the Constitu­tional; Amendment of 1993.

Social Legislations and Progress

The British enacted social legislation, especially for preventing toddler marriages, sati, infanticide, and for encouraging widow remarriages, and many others. The Government of India exceeded the Hindu Marriage Act in 1955 and the Hindu Succession Act in 1956. Legis­lation also became enacted to deter infant labour.

There is now stringent law against the institution of dowry. According to the Constitution of India, untouchability is a criminal offence. The legislation for giving truthful wages to salary-earners and to take away the intermediaries and the group of zamindars have helped bad employees in towns and villages to get minimal wages.

Despite those healthy tendencies inside the post-independence period, the attention of monetary electricity within the hands of some families and individuals has extended. The poor aren’t yet getting their due share.

Their living conditions are pretty appalling. The bad are, even today, victims of the dictates of the wealthy top caste and class landlords. Dowry continues to be a severe evil, particularly in towns. Social cognizance about these problems is still lacking.

Religion, ethnicity and caste are taken into consideration important factors in elections. Much reliance is positioned upon one’s caste participants to win an election. Factional disputes originate from alliances primarily based on caste, religion and community-primarily based affiliations. Even urban and knowledgeable human beings are not unfastened from these issues.

 Sample Questions 

Question 1: How was India after independence?


The country has faced spiritual violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies. India has unresolved territorial disputes with China which in 1962 escalated into the Sino-Indian War, and with Pakistan which ended in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999.

Question 2: What are the difficulties faced by the newly independent nation of India?


After its independence in August 1947, India confronted gigantic difficulties. A portion of the significant difficulties are as per the following:

  • After the parcel, 8 million exiles had come from Pakistan. The recovery of these refugees was a major test.
  • There were around 500 hundred regal states, which should have been absorbed into the country.
  • The enormous populace of India was separated along with rank and shared lines. The nation had forever been a different one with various societies.
  • The economy was absolutely subject to agribusiness, which was reliant upon the rainstorm. An enormous number of assembly line laborers were poor and were living in ghettos. The country was in miserable poverty.

Question 3: What was the issue of language faced by the newly independent nation of India?


The issue of language was one more big deal conversation. A few chiefs accepted that English ought to be discarded and Hindi ought to be advanced as the public language. In any case, this thought was gone against by the pioneers from non-Hindi regions. They didn’t need a burden on Hindi on individuals in those areas. At last, it was concluded that while Hindi would be the ‘official language’; English would be utilized for correspondence among different states.

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Last Updated : 04 Nov, 2022
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