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Structures of Directory in Operating System

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A directory is a container that is used to contain folders and files. It organizes files and folders in a hierarchical manner. 

There are several logical structures of a directory, these are given below.  

  • Single-level directory – 
    The single-level directory is the simplest directory structure. In it, all files are contained in the same directory which makes it easy to support and understand. 

    A single level directory has a significant limitation, however, when the number of files increases or when the system has more than one user. Since all the files are in the same directory, they must have a unique name. if two users call their dataset test, then the unique name rule violated.


  • Since it is a single directory, so its implementation is very easy.
  • If the files are smaller in size, searching will become faster.
  • The operations like file creation, searching, deletion, updating are very easy in such a directory structure.
  • Logical Organization: Directory structures help to logically organize files and directories in a hierarchical structure. This provides an easy way to navigate and manage files, making it easier for users to access the data they need.
  • Increased Efficiency: Directory structures can increase the efficiency of the file system by reducing the time required to search for files. This is because directory structures are optimized for fast file access, allowing users to quickly locate the file they need.
  • Improved Security: Directory structures can provide better security for files by allowing access to be restricted at the directory level. This helps to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data and ensures that important files are protected.
  • Facilitates Backup and Recovery: Directory structures make it easier to backup and recover files in the event of a system failure or data loss. By storing related files in the same directory, it is easier to locate and backup all the files that need to be protected.
  • Scalability: Directory structures are scalable, making it easy to add new directories and files as needed. This helps to accommodate growth in the system and makes it easier to manage large amounts of data.


  • There may chance of name collision because two files can have the same name.
  • Searching will become time taking if the directory is large.
  • This can not group the same type of files together.
  • Two-level directory – 
    As we have seen, a single level directory often leads to confusion of files names among different users. the solution to this problem is to create a separate directory for each user. 

    In the two-level directory structure, each user has their own user files directory (UFD). The UFDs have similar structures, but each lists only the files of a single user. system’s master file directory (MFD) is searched whenever a new user id is Correct.

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Last Updated : 23 Mar, 2023
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