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Stooge Sort

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  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 15 Oct, 2022
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Stooge Sort is a recursive sorting algorithm. It is not much efficient but interesting sorting algorithm. It generally divides the array into two overlapping parts (2/3 each). After that it performs sorting in first 2/3 part and then it performs sorting in last 2/3 part. And then, sorting is done on first 2/3 part to ensure that the array is sorted.

The key idea is that sorting the overlapping part twice exchanges the elements between the other two sections accordingly.

Approach:

Step 1: If value at index 0 is greater than value at last index, swap them.
Step 2: Recursively, 

  • Stooge sort the initial 2/3rd of the array.
  • Stooge sort the last 2/3rd of the array.
  • Stooge sort the initial 2/3rd again to confirm.

NOTE: Always take the ceil of ((2/3)*N) for selecting elements.  

Illustration:  

Lets consider an example: arr[] = {2, 4, 5, 3, 1}

  • Step1: Initially, First and last elements are compared and if last is greater than first then they are swapped.
   1       4       5       3       2   
  • Step2: Now, recursively sort initial 2/3rd of the elements as shown below:
   1       4       5       3       2   
   1       3       4       5       2   
  • Step3: Then, recursively sort last 2/3rd of the elements, as shown below:
   1       3       4       5       2   
   1       2       3       4       5   
  • Step4: Again, sort the initial 2/3rd of the elements to confirm final data is sorted.
    • Resulted array:
   1       2       3       4       5   

stooge_sort

Below is the implementation for the above approach:

C++




// C++ code to implement stooge sort
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to implement stooge sort
void stoogesort(int arr[], int l, int h)
{
    if (l >= h)
        return;
 
    // If first element is smaller than last,
    // swap them
    if (arr[l] > arr[h])
        swap(arr[l], arr[h]);
 
    // If there are more than 2 elements in
    // the array
    if (h - l + 1 > 2) {
        int t = (h - l + 1) / 3;
 
        // Recursively sort first 2/3 elements
        stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
 
        // Recursively sort last 2/3 elements
        stoogesort(arr, l + t, h);
 
        // Recursively sort first 2/3 elements
        // again to confirm
        stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 2, 4, 5, 3, 1 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
 
    // Calling Stooge Sort function to sort
    // the array
    stoogesort(arr, 0, n - 1);
 
    // Display the sorted array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
        cout << arr[i] << " ";
 
    return 0;
}


Java




// Java program to implement stooge sort
import java.io.*;
 
public class stooge {
    // Function to implement stooge sort
    static void stoogesort(int arr[], int l, int h)
    {
        if (l >= h)
            return;
 
        // If first element is smaller
        // than last, swap them
        if (arr[l] > arr[h]) {
            int t = arr[l];
            arr[l] = arr[h];
            arr[h] = t;
        }
 
        // If there are more than 2 elements in
        // the array
        if (h - l + 1 > 2) {
            int t = (h - l + 1) / 3;
 
            // Recursively sort first 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
 
            // Recursively sort last 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l + t, h);
 
            // Recursively sort first 2/3 elements
            // again to confirm
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
        }
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        int arr[] = { 2, 4, 5, 3, 1 };
        int n = arr.length;
 
        stoogesort(arr, 0, n - 1);
 
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
            System.out.print(arr[i] + " ");
    }
}
// Code Contributed by Mohit Gupta_OMG <(0_o)>


Python3




# Python program to implement stooge sort
 
def stoogesort(arr, l, h):
    if l >= h:
        return
  
    # If first element is smaller
    # than last, swap them
    if arr[l]>arr[h]:
        t = arr[l]
        arr[l] = arr[h]
        arr[h] = t
  
    # If there are more than 2 elements in
    # the array
    if h-l + 1 > 2:
        t = (int)((h-l + 1)/3)
  
        # Recursively sort first 2 / 3 elements
        stoogesort(arr, l, (h-t))
  
        # Recursively sort last 2 / 3 elements
        stoogesort(arr, l + t, (h))
  
        # Recursively sort first 2 / 3 elements
        # again to confirm
        stoogesort(arr, l, (h-t))
  
 
# deriver
arr = [2, 4, 5, 3, 1]
n = len(arr)
 
stoogesort(arr, 0, n-1)
  
for i in range(0, n):
    print(arr[i], end = ' ')
 
# Code Contributed by Mohit Gupta_OMG <(0_o)>


C#




// C# program to implement stooge sort
using System;
 
class GFG {
     
    // Function to implement stooge sort
    static void stoogesort(int[] arr,
                            int l, int h)
    {
        if (l >= h)
            return;
 
        // If first element is smaller
        // than last, swap them
        if (arr[l] > arr[h]) {
            int t = arr[l];
            arr[l] = arr[h];
            arr[h] = t;
        }
 
        // If there are more than 2
        // elements in the array
        if (h - l + 1 > 2) {
            int t = (h - l + 1) / 3;
 
            // Recursively sort first
            // 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
 
            // Recursively sort last
            // 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l + t, h);
 
            // Recursively sort first
            // 2/3 elements again to
            // confirm
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
        }
    }
 
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main()
    {
        int[] arr = { 2, 4, 5, 3, 1 };
        int n = arr.Length;
 
        // Calling Stooge Sort function
        // to sort the array
        stoogesort(arr, 0, n - 1);
 
        // Display the sorted array
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
            Console.Write(arr[i] + " ");
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Sam007.


Javascript




<script>
    // Javascript program to implement stooge sort
     
    // Function to implement stooge sort
    function stoogesort(arr, l, h)
    {
        if (l >= h)
            return;
   
        // If first element is smaller
        // than last, swap them
        if (arr[l] > arr[h]) {
            let t = arr[l];
            arr[l] = arr[h];
            arr[h] = t;
        }
   
        // If there are more than 2
        // elements in the array
        if (h - l + 1 > 2) {
            let t = parseInt((h - l + 1) / 3, 10);
   
            // Recursively sort first
            // 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
   
            // Recursively sort last
            // 2/3 elements
            stoogesort(arr, l + t, h);
   
            // Recursively sort first
            // 2/3 elements again to
            // confirm
            stoogesort(arr, l, h - t);
        }
    }
     
    let arr = [ 2, 4, 5, 3, 1 ];
    let n = arr.length;
 
    // Calling Stooge Sort function
    // to sort the array
    stoogesort(arr, 0, n - 1);
 
    // Display the sorted array
    for (let i = 0; i < n; i++)
      document.write(arr[i] + " ");
     
</script>


Output

1 2 3 4 5 

The running time complexity of stooge sort can be written as,

T(n) = 3T(2n/3) + ?(1)

Solution of above recurrence is O(n(log3/log1.5)) = O(n2.709), hence it is slower than even bubble sort(n^2).

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This article is contributed by DANISH KALEEM. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.


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