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Solanaceae – Characteristics, Importance, Examples

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 14 Jun, 2022

Solanaceae place among developed species and some others, like potato, pepper, and tomato, play a deciding job in the human eating routine and the economy of the nations. Others are generally developed as fancy plants or for modern and drug purposes. Infection sicknesses have a genuine and, surprisingly, horrendous effect and could in fact challenge these harvests in both mild and equatorial areas. This present circumstance isn’t well-defined for Solanaceae or infections, and the creation of most harvest plants is restricted by different microbes. A few cases have added to making developed establishes more powerless than unconstrained greenery and, in any case, spreading them out of their nations of beginning in various environments.

The fundamental Solanaceae are presently developed on all mainlands, and their normal development mode has been changed misleadingly. They have been chosen to deliver perpetually, which has broken their physiological equilibrium and made them more powerless to go after by microorganisms, including infections. The specialization and artificialization of yields and even assortments have made enormous, homogeneous areas of plentiful hosts for infections and their vectors.

Numerous infections can be falsely immunized with tomatoes, and more than 100 normally happen on this plant in the different creation regions. Each of these infections is connected to a bigger or more modest number of hosts. Tomato is the Solanaceae generally impacted by infections. It is now and again went after by a few infections immediately, for instance, in France, with Cucumber mosaic infection (CMV) and PVY and in the United States with ToMV and PVX.

Systematic position

Class Dicotyledons
Subclass Gamopetalae
Series Bicarpellata
Order Polemoniales
Family Solanaceae

Characters of a family Solanaceae 

  • Flowering plants have small dust grains which distribute hereditary data, starting with one and then onto the next blossom.
  • Angiosperms have stamens – conceptive designs delivering dust grains conveying hereditary data (male)
  • Blooming plants produce endosperm.

Vegetative Characters 

  • Habit-For the most part yearly or getting through flavors, some are shrubberies, and a couple is climbers.
  • Root system-Tap, and spread.
  • Stem-Herbaceous, erect, extended, fuzzy, or prickly, underground in potato outlining tubers
  • Leaf– Exstipulate, substitute, essential, entire or lobed, pinnately compound in tomato, unicostate reticulate venation. Herbal Characters.

Floral Characters

  • Inflorescence– Commonly an axillary cyme or blend of cymes, now and again helicoid
  • Flower– Pentamerous, bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, rarely irregular (Hyoscyamus), hypogynous
  • Calyx-Five, gamosepalous, persistent as in Withania, cape-gooseberry, and eggplant, inferior
  • Corolla-Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation
  • Androecium– Five Stamens, anther Basifixed, epipetalous
  • Gynoecium– Syncarpous, binocular, superior ovary, bicarpellary, axile placentation
  • Fruit-capsule/ Berry
  • Seed– Endospermous, Many seeds

Economic Importance Of Solanaceae

  • The family Solanaceae incorporates numerous monetarily and healthfully significant developed plant species like tomato, potato, eggplants, and bean stew peppers. 
  • Tomato is quite possibly the most consumed and developed solanaceous plant species. Tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants are rich wellsprings of nutrients and minerals that are essential to human wellbeing. 
  • They likewise contain an assortment of phytochemicals, for example, polyphenolics that are bioactive substances with various well-being helping natural properties including cell reinforcement, mitigating, anticancer, and hypolipidemic impacts. 
  • Tomatoes and tomato-based items are the most extravagant wellsprings of lycopene, a red-hued carotenoid color with numerous well-being helping ascribes like avoidance of diseases.
Floral Character of Solanaceae

 

Floral Formula 

 

  • ⊕ –Actinomorphic (radial symmetry) 
  • ⚥- Bisexual 
  • K(5)- Calyx – 5 sepals, gamosepalous (united) 
  • C(5)- Corolla – 5 petals, gamopetalous 
  • A5-    Androecium – 5 stamens, polyandrous (free), epipetalous (attached to petals) 
  • G(2)- Gynoecium – Bicarpellary, syncarpous (united), superior ovary

Importance of Solanaceae as Medicines

The monetary significance of the Solanaceae family is additionally dominating, being used for drugs. The individuals have significant applications as prescriptions.

  1. The foundations of Atropa belladonna are a wellspring of alkaloid atropine. This alkaloid is utilized in colors and mortars. This alkaloid helps in beating the fit of the muscles and furthermore helps in easing torment.
  2. Nicotine is created from Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Datura stramonium is a plant that creates the medication stramonium. This medication is utilized to treat the bronchioles in asthma and furthermore utilized in the treatment of Parkinson’s sickness.
  3. Hyoscyamus niger is a plant that enhances the financial significance of the Solanaceae family as a restorative plan. The dried leaves of the plant and the bloom tops are significant for the creation of henbane. Henbane is utilized as a narcotic in ailments like asthma and beating hack.

Examples of Solanaceae 

Brugmansia arborea 

  • Propensity: Small wild. Living space: Mesophyte; in Hill stations at a height of 6000 to 8000 feet. 
  • Stem: Woody, spread, erect. 
  • Leaves: Petiolate, lanceolate, edge whole, substitute. 
  • Inflorescence: Solitary and axillary 
  • Flowers. Blossoms: Pedicelled, Bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous, white, pendulous. 
  • Calyx: 5 projections, cylindrical, whole, sharpen, gamosepalous. 
  • Corolla: 5 projections, cylindrical, channel-moulded, exceptionally enormous pendulous, gamopetalous; wound aestivation. 
  • Androecium: 5 Stamens, epipetalous, fibers filiform, anthers unmistakable, dehiscing longitudinally, embedded. 
  • Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, predominant ovary; Ovary angled ready. Numerous ovules in axile placentation.
  •  Organic product: Septifragal case. 

 Cestrum aurentiacum Lindl

  • Propensity: Moderate, measured wild bush yet generally developed. 
  • Territory: Mesophyte at higher heights of Hill stations up to 8500 feet from MSL. 
  • Stem: Woody, erect marginally pubescent. 
  • Leaves: Alternate short petiolated elliptical lanceolate, marginally pubescent. 
  • Inflorescence: Axillary cymes. Blossoms: Orange-hued; sexually unbiased actinomorphic. 
  • Calyx: 5, sepals; gamosepalous green. 
  • Corolla: 5, petals, gamopetalous rounded, orange-hued. 
  • Androecium: 5, stamens, epipetalous, equivalent. 
  • Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, syncarpous, unrivaled ovary with axile, placentation. 
  • Organic product: Globose berry, yellow. 
  • Seeds: White berries.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: Give some economic importance to Solanaceae family members as medicines?

Answer:

Some of the Solanaceae family members that are used as medicines include Atropa belladonna in plasters and tinctures, Datura stramonium for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in treatment of asthma, and Nicotiana tabacum which produces nicotine.

Question 2: Which  Solanaceae family member is used to produce chilli powder?

Answer:

The plant Capsicum annum is used to produce chili powder, as it is an important spice in India.

Question 3: Which Solanaceae family members are popularly used as foods?

Answer: 

Solanaceae families like Solanum Tuberosum (potato), Solanum Melongena (brinjal), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), etc are used as vegetables.

Question 4: What are the highlights of the family Solanaceae? 

Answer:

Qualities of Solanaceae Family 

  • Root foundation: Taproot framework. 
  • Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae incorporates spices, bushes, little trees, and climbers. 
  • Leaves: Alternate, basic or pinnately compound (once in a blue moon); exstipulate; reticulate venation.

Question 5: What is the economical importance of the Solanaceae family?

 Answer: 

Economic Importance of Solanaceae- The family solanaceae contributes a few significant food, medication and decorative plants to the human race. Henceforth this family is viewed as monetarily significant. Solanum species: Solanum tuberosum is most significant food crop after cereals.


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