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# Sequence of Alphabetical Character Letters from A-Z in R

• Last Updated : 23 Sep, 2021

In this article, we are going to discuss how to get a sequence of character letters from A-Z in R programming language.

## Return all lower case letters using letters function

We will get all letters in lowercase sequence by using the letters function

Syntax:

letters

Example: Return all lowercase letters using letters function

## R

 `# return all lower case letters in sequence ` `print``(``letters``)`

Output:

[1] “a” “b” “c” “d” “e” “f” “g” “h” “i” “j” “k” “l” “m” “n” “o” “p” “q” “r” “s”

[20] “t” “u” “v” “w” “x” “y” “z”

## Return all upper case letters using LETTERS function

We will get all letters in uppercase sequence by using LETTERS function.

Syntax:

LETTERS

Example: Return all uppercase letters using LETTERS  function

## R

 `# return all upper case letters in sequence ` `print``(``LETTERS``)`

Output:

[1] “A” “B” “C” “D” “E” “F” “G” “H” “I” “J” “K” “L” “M” “N” “O” “P” “Q” “R” “S”

[20] “T” “U” “V” “W” “X” “Y” “Z”

## Subsequence letters using range operation

We can get the subsequence of letters using the index. Index starts with 1 and ends with 26 (since there are 26 letters from a to z). We are getting from letters/LETTERS function.

Syntax:

letters[start:end]

LETTERS[start:end]

Where, start is the starting letter index and end is the ending letter index.

Example: R program to get subsequence letters using index

## R

 `# return all upper case letters from  ` `# index 1 to index 12 ` `print``(``LETTERS``[1:12]) ` ` `  `# return all lower case letters from ` `# index 1 to index 12 ` `print``(``letters``[1:12]) ` ` `  `# return all upper case letters from ` `# index 5 to index 26 ` `print``(``LETTERS``[5:26]) ` ` `  `# return all lower case letters from ` `# index 5 to index 26 ` `print``(``letters``[5:26])`

Output:

[1] “A” “B” “C” “D” “E” “F” “G” “H” “I” “J” “K” “L”

[1] “a” “b” “c” “d” “e” “f” “g” “h” “i” “j” “k” “l”

[1] “E” “F” “G” “H” “I” “J” “K” “L” “M” “N” “O” “P” “Q” “R” “S” “T” “U” “V” “W” “X” “Y” “Z”

[1] “e” “f” “g” “h” “i” “j” “k” “l” “m” “n” “o” “p” “q” “r” “s” “t” “u” “v” “w” “x” “y” “z”

## Random sequence of letters using sample() function

Here in this scenario, we will get the random letters randomly using sample() function. sample() function is used to generate random letters

Syntax:

sample(letters/LETTERS,size)

Where,

• letters/LETTERS  is a function that is a first parameter to display letters in lower/upper case
• size is used to get the number of letters randomly

Example: R program to display random letters

## R

 `# display 20 random lower case letters ` `sample``(``letters``, 20) ` ` `  `# display 20 random upper case letters ` `sample``(``LETTERS``, 20) ` ` `  `# display 17 random lower case letters ` `sample``(``letters``, 17) ` ` `  `# display 17 random upper case letters ` `sample``(``LETTERS``, 17)`

Output:

[1] “k” “p” “g” “c” “j” “r” “s” “u” “h” “i” “d” “o” “a” “m” “y” “f” “t” “l” “q” “b”

[1] “D” “A” “K” “G” “W” “E” “N” “C” “P” “T” “M” “S” “F” “V” “B” “R” “H” “Y” “X” “I”

[1] “i” “v” “f” “u” “s” “d” “x” “w” “h” “a” “p” “b” “y” “o” “c” “z” “l”

[1] “Y” “X” “Z” “C” “N” “M” “A” “Q” “V” “R” “O” “E” “B” “J” “F” “U” “I”

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