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Semiconductor Mission of India

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  • Last Updated : 01 Nov, 2022
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Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity under specific circumstances, i.e., they need a medium to do so. They are pure materials with a mix of conductor and non-conductor qualities, however, occasionally impurities are introduced to boost conductivity. The fundamental variety of semiconductors is:

  • Intrinsic Semiconductors
  • Extrinsic Semiconductors

A. Intrinsic Semiconductors:

Pure materials are used to create intrinsic semiconductors, which results in their weak conductivity. The intrinsic semiconductors have an equal amount of individual electrons and holes, the negative and positive transporters.

B. Extrinsic Semiconductor:

Extrinsic semiconductor is what is created when an impurity is introduced to a pure semiconductor. Doping is the term for the addition of contaminants. The conductivity of the whole semiconductor is increased by impurity addition. Doping comes in two different forms (N-type, and P-type). Numerous methods, including Thermal Diffusion, Ion Implantation, Photolithography, etc., can be used to dope materials.

  • N-type Semiconductor: Pentavalent impurities, such as antimony, arsenic, or phosphorus, increase the conductivity of the intrinsic semiconductors by contributing free electrons.
  • P-type Semiconductor: When trivalent impurities like boron, aluminum, or gallium are combined with intrinsic semiconductors, the result is a shortage of valence electrons, or “holes.” P-Type semiconductor is recognized to be the end product material.

Doping’s Effect on Extrinsic Semiconductors:

  • Charge neutrality is preserved in crystal.
  • Because there are so many majority carries, minority carriers developed thermally have a greater probability of encountering them and being eliminated as a result.
  • Therefore, the dopant indirectly aids in lowering the inherent concentration of minority carriers by introducing a sizable number of current carriers.
  • Doping has an impact on the energy band structure of the semiconductor. Extrinsic semiconductors have multiple energy states because of both acceptor and donor impurities.

What is India’s Semiconductor Mission?

About Semiconductor Mission:

  • The interaction with applicants under the Semiconductor Fab Scheme and Display Fab Scheme has been approved for this objective.
  • This objective gives candidates the freedom to choose the best technology combination, applications, node production, etc.
  • The mission also specifies the type and amount of financial aid that will be given to chosen candidates.
  • These facilities process and create integrated circuits from raw silicon wafers.
  • It is important to note that the government also announced a 76,000 crore incentive for semiconductor manufacture in India in the same month.
  • The vision of this mission is to promote India’s development as a significant global hub for the production and design of electronics by fostering a robust semiconductor and display design and innovation ecosystem.

Opportunities for India:

  • By 2026 and 2030, India’s semiconductor consumption is projected to surpass $80 billion and reach $ 110 billion, respectively.
  • Up to 20% of the world’s semiconductor design engineers come from India, which offers a remarkable skill pool for the field.
  • India has a sizable domestic market and is closer to markets in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe.
  • The semiconductor value chain would guarantee a multiplier impact on the whole economy.

Challenges of Semiconductor Mission:

  • Setting up a fab manufacturing plant will demand a significant investment.
  • Chip fabrication facilities are also exceedingly thirsty, requiring millions of liters of pure water and an exceptionally reliable power source.
  • More technical knowledge is required.
  • Lack of effective trash disposal and insufficient logistics.
  • Automakers would lose $110 billion in sales in 2021 as a result of chip shortages brought on the COVID-19.
  • Conflict between Russia and Ukraine and its effects on raw material supply for the semiconductor value chain.

Components of the Semiconductor Mission:

There are Four Schemes under the Program:

  1. Scheme for setting up of Semiconductor Fabs: Depending on the technology node, financial help for the construction of a silicon CMOS semiconductor fabrication facility. The plan, which aims to draw significant investments for the construction of semiconductor wafer production facilities, is projected to boost the industrial ecosystem and aid in the creation of a reliable value chain.
  2. Compound Semiconductors/ Silicon Photonics/ Sensors Fabrication Scheme and Semiconductor Assembly, Testing, Marking and Packaging (ATMP) / OSAT Facilities: It offers financial assistance equal to 30% of the capital expenditure investment for the establishment of facilities for compound semiconductors, silicon photonics (SIPH), sensors (including MEMS), semiconductor ATMP, and OSAT in India.
  3. Scheme for setting up of Display fabs: By providing financial support equal to up to 50% of project costs, it seeks to attract significant investment for the production of TFT LCD or AMOLED-based display panels ( subject to ceiling of INR 12,000 crore per Fab).
  4. Design Linked Incentive Scheme (DLI): It provides financial incentives in addition to design infrastructure assistance for semiconductor design at different phases of deployment for Integrated Circuits (ICs), Chipsets, System on Chips (SoCs), systems, and IP Cores.

Significance of the Semiconductor Scheme:

  • In the present geopolitical environment, reliable sources of semiconductors and displays are crucial for the protection of vital information infrastructure.
  • In order to ensure India’s digital sovereignty, the authorized initiative would foster innovation and strengthen local capabilities.
  • In order to capitalize on the nation’s demographic dividend, it will also provide chances for highly skilled jobs.
  • Deeper integration into the global value chain and a multiplier impact across several economic sectors are both expected from the development of the semiconductor and display ecosystem.

Way Ahead:

1. Semiconductor diplomacy: India needs to grasp the chance and establish itself as a desirable location for semiconductor production.

  • The Act East Policy of India, which seeks to forge strong relations in the Asia Pacific region, is dependent on the semiconductor industry.

2. Policy Development: The long-term development of policies by the government must meet all of the fundamental qualities.

Why in News?

  • The government is focused on its important goal of creating the total semiconductor ecosystem and making sure that it in turn stimulates India’s fast growing electronics industry.
  • The growth of the semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem in our nation will cost a total of INR 76,000 crore.
  • The initiative intends to give businesses that invest in the semiconductor, display manufacturing, and design ecosystem financial help. This would open the door for India’s expanding participation in the global value chains for electronics.

Conclusion:

India has come to the realization that relying only on international supply chains for something as crucial as semiconductor chips is not a prudent course of action. It’s a step in the right direction that the Cabinet decided to launch an India Semiconductor Mission, led by “global industry experts” to formulate long-term plans for the growth of the chip and display industries.


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