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Root System in Plants

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A root is a piece of a vascular plant typically present under the ground. Its essential functions include jetty of the plant, ingestion of water and disintegrated minerals and conduction of these to the stem, and capacity to hold food varieties. The root contrasts from the stem principally by lacking leaf scars and buds, having a root cap, and having branches that start from inner tissue as opposed to from buds.

What is root?

Roots are a crucial part of all vascular plants. Roots help the plant to interact with the soil and help the plant to get the essential nutrients, water, and vitamins from the soil. Roots help to get water from the soil which is very important for proper growth and photosynthesis. Different types of modification of roots are seen according to the requirements. Not all plants have roots under the ground some have roots over the surface such roots are known as aerial roots. Aerial roots also provide nutrients, water, vitamins, and anchor the plant to a wall or rock. 

Various other particular roots exist among vascular plants. Pneumatophores, generally found in mangrove species that fill in saline mud pads, are horizontal roots that develop vertically out of the mud and water to work as the site of oxygen admission for the lowered essential underground root growth. The underlying foundations of specific parasitic plants are exceptionally adjusted into haustoria, which implant into the vascular arrangement of the host plant to take care of the parasite.



Characteristics of Root

  • Chlorophyll is not present in roots, and because of that, they are not green in color.
  • They don’t have nodes and internodes.
  • Root hair is present on the roots, which helps in the absorption of nutrients.
  • Root shows different types of movements
    • Positive Geotrophism-Growth of roots towards gravity.
    • Positive Hydrotropism-Growth towards the water.
    • Negative Phototropism-Movement of roots away from sunlight.
  • Roots are protected via root caps at the tips of the root.

The actual tip of the root is covered by a thimble-formed root cap, which protects the developing tip as it clears its path through the dirt. Apical meristem is present directly under the root cap, a tissue of effectively partitioning cells. A portion of the cells created by the apical meristem are added to the root cap, yet the majority of them are added to the area of extension, which lies simply over the meristematic district.

Differences between Monocot and Dicot roots 



Dust with a single wrinkle or pore Pollen with three wrinkles or pores
Flower parts in products of three Flower parts in products four and five
Significant leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated
Stem vascular packs scattered Stem vascular groups  in a ring

Functions of Roots

Roots fill different roles that are essential for the endurance of the plants. They are a vital or incorporated framework that helps the plant in:

  • Anchoring:  Roots are the explanation plants stay connected to the ground. They support the plant body, guaranteeing that it stands erect.
  • Absorption: Primary function of the roots is to assimilate water and break down minerals from the dirt. This is urgent as it helps during the time spent in photosynthesis.
  • Storage: Plants get produce food through photosynthesis and save it as starch in the leaves, shoots, and roots. Conspicuous models incorporate carrots, radish, beetroot, and so on.
  • Reproduction: Even though roots are not the regenerative piece of plants, they are vegetative parts. In certain plants, the roots are a method for proliferation. For example, new plants emerge from crawling-level stems called sprinters (stolons) in jasmine, grass, and so forth. This kind of multiplication is called the vegetative spread.
  • Ecological Function: They actually look at soil disintegration, and give food, and furthermore territory to different organic entities.

Structure of Roots

Root Cap

The root is covered at the tip by a thimble-like design. This is known as called a root cap. The root cap protects the delicate root zenith when it clears its path through the dirt.

Region of Meristematic Activity 

This area is also known as the region of cell division. This area lies a couple of millimeters over the root cap. This is the district of meristematic action. The cells in this district are tiny and have a slender divider and thick cellular material. Since this is the meristematic area, the cells partition quickly.

Regions of Root


Region of Elongation

This area lies over the locale of the meristematic movement. The cells close to this district go through quick extension and growth. These cells are answerable for the development of roots long.

Region of Maturation

This area is simply over the locale of the extension. The cells from the locale of extension separate and mature, and afterward structure the district of development. The root hairs turn out around here. Root hairs are essential for the root epidermis.

Orders of Root

Plant roots develop in the following hierarchy.

Primary Roots

The roots grow directly from the radicle. It is the most important part of the root present in the center. The tap root system is from the primary roots.

Secondary Roots

Lateral roots are the other name for secondary roots. Primary roots give rise to secondary roots.

Tertiary Roots

The tertiary root is raised from the secondary roots. Some of the roots lost the geotropism. The tips of the roots have some root hairs which are covered with root caps.

Modification of Root

Modification for Food capacity 

Tap underlying foundations of turnip and carrot and unusual underlying foundations of yam are instances of alteration of root for food capacity.

Modification for Support 

In banyan trees, hanging uncovers come from branches. The hanging roots then go into the dirt to offer extra help to the gigantic banyan tree. Such roots are called prop roots. If there should be an occurrence of a maize plant, uncovers rise up out of the lower hub of the stem and go into the ground. Such roots are called brace roots and offer extra help.

Modified for Respiratory

In plants that fill in swamps, many roots come out upward over the ground. These are empty roots are called pneumatophores. They work with the trade of gases in the roots. Due to waterlogging in swamps, it is beyond the realm of possibilities for roots to inhale air. Pneumatophores make up for this deficiency and permit the trade of gases. Rhizophora is a tree of mangrove timberland, which shows the presence of pneumatophores.

FAQs on Root

Question 1:  What are the various kinds of root morphology? 

 Answer : 

Based on the beginning the roots can be characterized by the accompanying sorts 

  • Taproot: (Example: Dicots-Mustard) Thick essential root emerges straightforwardly from the radicle and develops inside the dirt.  
  • Fibrous root: (Example: Monocots-Wheat)  
  • Adventitious or unusual roots: (Example: Grass, Monstera, Banyan tree)

Question 2:  What are the Characteristics of roots?


Characteristics of roots are:

  • The root is the plummeting part of the plant hub. 
  • It is emphatically geotropic. 
  • It is normally non-green or brown in variety. 
  • The root isn’t additionally separated into hubs and internodes 

Question 3: What are root hairs? 


The thin extensions from the epidermal cell are called epiblema. Such thin hairs are known as root hairs

Question 4: Which mechanism roots uses for the uptake of nutrients? 


Roots absorb nutrients or uptake water via diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.

Question 5:  What is the distinction between taproot and fibrous root?

Answer : 

Taproot enters profound into the dirt, while a stringy root is shallow and doesn’t infiltrate as profoundly. A taproot is the separated essential foundation of the plant, while the stringy root isn’t the separated essential base of the plant.

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Last Updated : 01 May, 2023
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