ReactJS Virtual DOM
// Simple getElementById() method document.getElementById('some-id').innerValue = 'updated value';
- The browser parses the HTML to find the node with this id.
- It removes the child element of this specific element.
- Updates the element(DOM) with the ‘updated value’.
- Recalculates the CSS for the parent and child nodes.
- Update the layout.
- Finally, traverse the tree and paint it on the screen(browser) display.
So as we know now that updating the DOM not only involves changing the content, it has a lot more attached to it. Also recalculating the CSS and changing the layouts involves complex algorithms, and they do affect the performance. So React has a different approach to dealing with this, as it makes use of something known as Virtual DOM.
React uses Virtual DOM exists which is like a lightweight copy of the actual DOM(a virtual representation of the DOM). So for every object that exists in the original DOM, there is an object for that in React Virtual DOM. It is exactly the same, but it does not have the power to directly change the layout of the document. Manipulating DOM is slow, but manipulating Virtual DOM is fast as nothing gets drawn on the screen. So each time there is a change in the state of our application, the virtual DOM gets updated first instead of the real DOM. You may still wonder, “Aren’t we doing the same thing again and doubling our work? How can this be faster?” Read below to understand how things will be faster using virtual DOM.
How Virtual DOM actually makes things faster
When anything new is added to the application, a virtual DOM is created and it is represented as a tree. Each element in the application is a node in this tree. So, whenever there is a change in the state of any element, a new Virtual DOM tree is created. This new Virtual DOM tree is then compared with the previous Virtual DOM tree and make a note of the changes. After this, it finds the best possible ways to make these changes to the real DOM. Now only the updated elements will get rendered on the page again.
How Virtual DOM Helps React
In React, everything is treated as a component be it a functional component or class component. A component can contain a state. Each time we change something in our JSX file or let’s put it in simple terms, whenever the state of any component is changed react updates its Virtual DOM tree. Though it may sound like it is ineffective the cost is not much significant as updating the virtual DOM doesn’t take much time. React maintains two Virtual DOM at each time, one contains the updated Virtual DOM and one which is just the pre-update version of this updated Virtual DOM. Now it compares the pre-update version with the updated Virtual DOM and figures out what exactly has changed in the DOM like which components have been changed. This process of comparing the current Virtual DOM tree with the previous one is known as ‘diffing’. Once React finds out what exactly has changed then it updates those objects only, on real DOM. React uses something called batch updates to update the real DOM. It just means that the changes to the real DOM are sent in batches instead of sending any update for a single change in the state of a component. We have seen that the re-rendering of the UI is the most expensive part and React manages to do this most efficiently by ensuring that the Real DOM receives batch updates to re-render the UI. This entire process of transforming changes to the real DOM is called Reconciliation.
This significantly improves the performance and is the main reason why React and its Virtual DOM are much loved by developers all around.
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