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Python Operators

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 07 Sep, 2021

Python Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for the purpose of logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators. 

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

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Operator Description Syntax
+ Addition: adds two operands x + y
Subtraction: subtracts two operands x – y
* Multiplication: multiplies two operands x * y
/ Division (float): divides the first operand by the second x / y
// Division (floor): divides the first operand by the second x // y
% Modulus: returns the remainder when the first operand is divided by the second x % y
** Power: Returns first raised to power second x ** y

Example: Arithmetic operators in Python

Python3




# Examples of Arithmetic Operator
a = 9
b = 4
 
# Addition of numbers
add = a + b
 
# Subtraction of numbers
sub = a - b
 
# Multiplication of number
mul = a * b
 
# Division(float) of number
div1 = a / b
 
# Division(floor) of number
div2 = a // b
 
# Modulo of both number
mod = a % b
 
# Power
p = a ** b
 
# print results
print(add)
print(sub)
print(mul)
print(div1)
print(div2)
print(mod)
print(p)


Output



13
5
36
2.25
2
1
6561

Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two operators.

Comparison Operators

Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

Operator Description Syntax
> Greater than: True if the left operand is greater than the right x > y
< Less than: True if the left operand is less than the right x < y
== Equal to: True if both operands are equal x == y
!= Not equal to – True if operands are not equal x != y
>= Greater than or equal to True if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right x >= y
<= Less than or equal to True if the left operand is less than or equal to the right x <= y

Example: Comparison Operators in Python

Python3




# Examples of Relational Operators
a = 13
b = 33
 
# a > b is False
print(a > b)
 
# a < b is True
print(a < b)
 
# a == b is False
print(a == b)
 
# a != b is True
print(a != b)
 
# a >= b is False
print(a >= b)
 
# a <= b is True
print(a <= b)


Output

False
True
False
True
False
True

Logical Operators

Logical operators perform Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Description Syntax
and Logical AND: True if both the operands are true x and y
or Logical OR: True if either of the operands is true  x or y
not Logical NOT: True if the operand is false  not x

Example: Logical Operators in Python

Python3




# Examples of Logical Operator
a = True
b = False
 
# Print a and b is False
print(a and b)
 
# Print a or b is True
print(a or b)
 
# Print not a is False
print(not a)


Output

False
True
False

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

Operator Description Syntax
& Bitwise AND x & y
| Bitwise OR x | y
~ Bitwise NOT ~x
^ Bitwise XOR x ^ y
>> Bitwise right shift x>>
<< Bitwise left shift x<<

Example: Bitwise Operators in Python

Python3




# Examples of Bitwise operators
a = 10
b = 4
 
# Print bitwise AND operation
print(a & b)
 
# Print bitwise OR operation
print(a | b)
 
# Print bitwise NOT operation
print(~a)
 
# print bitwise XOR operation
print(a ^ b)
 
# print bitwise right shift operation
print(a >> 2)
 
# print bitwise left shift operation
print(a << 2)


Output

0
14
-11
14
2
40

Assignment Operators 

Assignment operators are used to assigning values to the variables.



Operator Description Syntax
= Assign value of right side of expression to left side operand  x = y + z
+= Add AND: Add right-side operand with left side operand and then assign to left operand a+=b     a=a+b
-= Subtract AND: Subtract right operand from left operand and then assign to left operand a-=b     a=a-b
*= Multiply AND: Multiply right operand with left operand and then assign to left operand a*=b     a=a*b
/= Divide AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign to left operand a/=b     a=a/b
%= Modulus AND: Takes modulus using left and right operands and assign the result to left operand a%=b     a=a%b
//= Divide(floor) AND: Divide left operand with right operand and then assign the value(floor) to left operand a//=b     a=a//b
**= Exponent AND: Calculate exponent(raise power) value using operands and assign value to left operand a**=b     a=a**b
&= Performs Bitwise AND on operands and assign value to left operand a&=b     a=a&b
|= Performs Bitwise OR on operands and assign value to left operand a|=b     a=a|b
^= Performs Bitwise xOR on operands and assign value to left operand a^=b     a=a^b
>>= Performs Bitwise right shift on operands and assign value to left operand a>>=b     a=a>>b
<<= Performs Bitwise left shift on operands and assign value to left operand a <<= b     a= a << b

Example: Assignment Operators in Python

Python3




# Examples of Assignment Operators
a = 10
 
# Assign value
b = a
print(b)
 
# Add and assign value
b += a
print(b)
 
# Subtract and assign value
b -= a
print(b)
 
# multiply and assign
b *= a
print(b)
 
# bitwise lishift operator
b <<= a
print(b)


Output

10
20
10
100
102400

Identity Operators

is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical. 

is          True if the operands are identical 
is not      True if the operands are not identical 

Example: Identity Operator

Python3




a = 10
b = 20
c = a
 
print(a is not b)
print(a is c)


Output

True
True

Membership Operators

in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

in            True if value is found in the sequence
not in        True if value is not found in the sequence

Example: Membership Operator

Python3




# Python program to illustrate
# not 'in' operator
x = 24
y = 20
list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
 
if (x not in list):
    print("x is NOT present in given list")
else:
    print("x is present in given list")
 
if (y in list):
    print("y is present in given list")
else:
    print("y is NOT present in given list")


Output

x is NOT present in given list
y is present in given list

Precedence and Associativity of Operators

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

Operator Precedence

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

Example: Operator Precedence

Python3




# Examples of Operator Precedence
 
# Precedence of '+' & '*'
expr = 10 + 20 * 30
print(expr)
 
# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'
name = "Alex"
age = 0
 
if name == "Alex" or name == "John" and age >= 2:
    print("Hello! Welcome.")
else:
    print("Good Bye!!")


Output

610
Hello! Welcome.

Operator Associativity

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

Example: Operator Associativity

Python3




# Examples of Operator Associativity
 
# Left-right associativity
# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as
# (100 / 10) * 10 and not
# as 100 / (10 * 10)
print(100 / 10 * 10)
 
# Left-right associativity
# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as
# (5 - 2) + 3 and not
# as 5 - (2 + 3)
print(5 - 2 + 3)
 
# left-right associativity
print(5 - (2 + 3))
 
# right-left associativity
# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as
# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not
# as (2 ** 3) ** 2
print(2 ** 3 ** 2)


Output

100.0
6
0
512

Quiz on Python Operators




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