# Python Operators

• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 07 Sep, 2021

Python Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for the purpose of logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators.

## Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

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## Python3

 `# Examples of Arithmetic Operator` `a ``=` `9` `b ``=` `4`   `# Addition of numbers` `add ``=` `a ``+` `b`   `# Subtraction of numbers` `sub ``=` `a ``-` `b`   `# Multiplication of number` `mul ``=` `a ``*` `b`   `# Division(float) of number` `div1 ``=` `a ``/` `b`   `# Division(floor) of number` `div2 ``=` `a ``/``/` `b`   `# Modulo of both number` `mod ``=` `a ``%` `b`   `# Power` `p ``=` `a ``*``*` `b`   `# print results` `print``(add)` `print``(sub)` `print``(mul)` `print``(div1)` `print``(div2)` `print``(mod)` `print``(p)`

Output

```13
5
36
2.25
2
1
6561```

Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two operators.

## Comparison Operators

Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Relational Operators` `a ``=` `13` `b ``=` `33`   `# a > b is False` `print``(a > b)`   `# a < b is True` `print``(a < b)`   `# a == b is False` `print``(a ``=``=` `b)`   `# a != b is True` `print``(a !``=` `b)`   `# a >= b is False` `print``(a >``=` `b)`   `# a <= b is True` `print``(a <``=` `b)`

Output

```False
True
False
True
False
True```

## Logical Operators

Logical operators perform Logical AND, Logical OR, and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Logical Operator` `a ``=` `True` `b ``=` `False`   `# Print a and b is False` `print``(a ``and` `b)`   `# Print a or b is True` `print``(a ``or` `b)`   `# Print not a is False` `print``(``not` `a)`

Output

```False
True
False```

## Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform the bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Bitwise operators` `a ``=` `10` `b ``=` `4`   `# Print bitwise AND operation` `print``(a & b)`   `# Print bitwise OR operation` `print``(a | b)`   `# Print bitwise NOT operation` `print``(~a)`   `# print bitwise XOR operation` `print``(a ^ b)`   `# print bitwise right shift operation` `print``(a >> ``2``)`   `# print bitwise left shift operation` `print``(a << ``2``)`

Output

```0
14
-11
14
2
40```

## Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assigning values to the variables.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Assignment Operators` `a ``=` `10`   `# Assign value` `b ``=` `a` `print``(b)`   `# Add and assign value` `b ``+``=` `a` `print``(b)`   `# Subtract and assign value` `b ``-``=` `a` `print``(b)`   `# multiply and assign` `b ``*``=` `a` `print``(b)`   `# bitwise lishift operator` `b <<``=` `a` `print``(b)`

Output

```10
20
10
100
102400```

## Identity Operators

is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical.

```is          True if the operands are identical
is not      True if the operands are not identical ```

## Python3

 `a ``=` `10` `b ``=` `20` `c ``=` `a`   `print``(a ``is` `not` `b)` `print``(a ``is` `c)`

Output

```True
True```

## Membership Operators

in and not in are the membership operators; used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

```in            True if value is found in the sequence

## Python3

 `# Python program to illustrate` `# not 'in' operator` `x ``=` `24` `y ``=` `20` `list` `=` `[``10``, ``20``, ``30``, ``40``, ``50``]`   `if` `(x ``not` `in` `list``):` `    ``print``(``"x is NOT present in given list"``)` `else``:` `    ``print``(``"x is present in given list"``)`   `if` `(y ``in` `list``):` `    ``print``(``"y is present in given list"``)` `else``:` `    ``print``(``"y is NOT present in given list"``)`

Output

```x is NOT present in given list
y is present in given list```

## Precedence and Associativity of Operators

Precedence and Associativity of Operators: Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

### Operator Precedence

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Operator Precedence`   `# Precedence of '+' & '*'` `expr ``=` `10` `+` `20` `*` `30` `print``(expr)`   `# Precedence of 'or' & 'and'` `name ``=` `"Alex"` `age ``=` `0`   `if` `name ``=``=` `"Alex"` `or` `name ``=``=` `"John"` `and` `age >``=` `2``:` `    ``print``(``"Hello! Welcome."``)` `else``:` `    ``print``(``"Good Bye!!"``)`

Output

```610
Hello! Welcome.```

### Operator Associativity

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

## Python3

 `# Examples of Operator Associativity`   `# Left-right associativity` `# 100 / 10 * 10 is calculated as` `# (100 / 10) * 10 and not` `# as 100 / (10 * 10)` `print``(``100` `/` `10` `*` `10``)`   `# Left-right associativity` `# 5 - 2 + 3 is calculated as` `# (5 - 2) + 3 and not` `# as 5 - (2 + 3)` `print``(``5` `-` `2` `+` `3``)`   `# left-right associativity` `print``(``5` `-` `(``2` `+` `3``))`   `# right-left associativity` `# 2 ** 3 ** 2 is calculated as` `# 2 ** (3 ** 2) and not` `# as (2 ** 3) ** 2` `print``(``2` `*``*` `3` `*``*` `2``)`

Output

```100.0
6
0
512```

## Quiz on Python Operators

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