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Python Numbers, Type Conversion and Mathematics

  • Last Updated : 17 Dec, 2020

Prerequisite: Python Language Introduction

Python is a general-purpose interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, and high-level programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum. It is an open-source programming language.

Types of numbers in Python

There are three numeric types in Python:

  • int
  • float
  • complex

As Python is a Loosely typed language, we need not define the variable. Variables of numeric types are created when you assign a value to them.

Example :



Python3




# int
var1 = 3
  
# float
var2 = 3.14
  
# complex
var3 = 3j
  
# type() method return the 
# data type of the variable
print(type(var1))
print(type(var2))
print(type(var3))


Output:

<class 'int'>
<class 'float'>
<class 'complex'>

Type conversion

Converting the value of one data type (integer, string, float, etc.) to another data type is called type conversion.

Example:

Python3




# Python code to demonstrate Type conversion 
var1 = 3.14
  
# type conversion of float to int .
var2 = int(var1) 
  
print ("After converting float to integer : ", var2) 
print ("type : ",type(var2))
  
# type conversion of string to integer
var3 = "323"
var4 = int(var3) 
  
print ("After converting string to integer : ", var4) 
print ("type : ",type(var4))


Output:

After converting float to integer :  3
type :  <class 'int'>
After converting string to integer :  323
type :  <class 'int'>

 Arithmetic operations on a number

You can add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers using various methods.

operator

description



example

+ Addition Add values on either side of the operator. 2 + 3 = 5
– Subtraction Subtracts right-hand value from left hand value. 3 – 2 = 1
* Multiplication Multiply values on either side of the operator 2 * 3 = 6
/ Division Divides two operands 3 / 2 = 1.5
% Modulus Divides two operands and returns remainder 3 / 2 =1
** Exponent Perform power operation 3 ** 2 = 9
// Floor Division 3 // 2 = 1

Example:

Python3




a = 50
b = 30
  
# Addition of numbers 
add = a +
  
# Subtraction of numbers 
sub = a -
  
# Multiplication of number 
mul = a *
  
# Division of number 
div1 = a /
  
# Division of number 
div2 = a //
  
# Modulo of both number 
mod = a %
  
# Power 
p = a **
  
# print results 
print(add) 
print(sub) 
print(mul) 
print(div1) 
print(div2) 
print(mod) 
print(p) 


Output:

80
20
1500
1.6666666666666667
1
20
931322574615478515625000000000000000000000000000000

Math Functions:

The math module has a set of mathematical functions, Some of them are discussed below.

Method

Description

math.sqrt() Returns the square root of a number
math.pow() Returns the value of x to the power of y
math.perm() Returns the number of ways to choose k items from n items with order and without repetition
math.gcd() Returns the greatest common divisor of two integers
math.floor() Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
math.ceil() Rounds a number up to the nearest integer
math.factorial() Returns the factorial of a number

Example 1:

Python3




# Python code to demonstrate the working of 
# ceil() and floor() 
  
# importing "math" for mathematical operations 
import math 
  
a = 2.3
  
# returning the ceil of 2.3 
print ("The ceil of 2.3 is : ", end="") 
print (math.ceil(a)) 
  
# returning the floor of 2.3 
print ("The floor of 2.3 is : ", end="") 
print (math.floor(a)) 


Output:

The ceil of 2.3 is : 3
The floor of 2.3 is : 2

Example 2:

Python3






# importing "math" for mathematical operations 
import math 
    
a = -10
b = 5.5
c = 15
d = 5
    
# returning the copysigned value. 
print ("The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : ", end="") 
print (math.copysign(5.5, -10)) 
    
# returning the gcd of 15 and 5 
print ("The gcd of 5 and 15 is : ", end="") 
print (math.gcd(5,15)) 


Output:

The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : -5.5
The gcd of 5 and 15 is : 5

To learn more about Math Functions you can refer to this article on Geekforgeeks

Random numbers:

In Python, we have a set of functions that are used to generate random numbers. These functions are used in games and lottery applications.

Methods in the random library:

  • Choice()
  • randrange()
  • random
  • seed()

Example:

Python3




# importing "random" for random operations 
import random 
    
# using random() to generate a random number 
# between 0 and 1 
print ("A random number between 0 and 1 is : ", end="") 
print (random.random()) 


Output:

A random number between 0 and 1 is : 0.8548698466875713

There is a detailed article on random numbers in geeksforgeeks.  You can refer to the article here.

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