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Propane Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 15 May, 2022
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Organic chemistry is the study of carbon-based chemical substances. Carbon may establish chemical bonds with a wide range of chemical elements as well as other carbon atoms. This allows for an almost infinite number of organic compound combinations. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds since all known organisms, or living things, are made up of water and carbon molecules. Organic chemistry is primarily concerned with the synthesis or production of organic compounds through chemical reactions involving various reactants and reagents or the components consumed during the reaction. Biochemistry, microbiology, and medicine are all branches of chemistry that build on the concepts and principles of organic chemistry.

Propane Formula 

Propane is a colorless, easily liquefied gaseous hydrocarbon. C3H8 is the formula for propane. After methane and ethane, it is the third member in the paraffin series. n-Propane, propyl hydride, and Dimethyl methane are some of its other names. Marcellin Berthelot, a French scientist, was the first to discover it in 1857. It is kept and transported as a liquid, which turns to gas when released from the container. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) contains C3H8, which is also accessible as liquefied Propane. An identifying smell is added to it for its detection. It is mostly extracted as a by-product of natural gas and petroleum refining.

Structure of Propane

Propane has three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms in its structure. Each carbon atom creates four covalent bonds, which connect them. The carbon shape stays C-C-C on this alkane, which has a chain-like shape. Each of the cease carbons and hydrogen atoms proportion a single bond with the critical carbon. Each end carbon atom has a single link with three hydrogen atoms and the center carbon atom.


In propane, the number of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors is zero.

Physical Properties of Propane



Molecular Weight

44.10 g/mol

Melting Point


Boiling Point

-42.25° to 42.04° C

Gas Density

2.0098 kg/m3

Critical Temperature

206.6° F

Chemical Properties of Propane

  • Propane interacts with a continual supply of oxygen to generate carbon dioxide and water.

C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O + heat

  • Incomplete combustion occurs when there is too much or too little oxygen available for the combustion reaction, resulting in soot (carbon) and/or carbon monoxide.

2C3H8 + 9O2 → 4CO2 + 2CO + 8H2O + heat

  • Propane nitrile is formed when KCN interacts with ethyl chloride.

C2​H5​Cl + KCN → C2​H5​CN + KCl

Uses of Propane

  1. Soldering blowtorches use it as a flammable gas.
  2. Propane is used as a feedstock for petrochemical manufacturing.
  3. This gas is also used in hot air balloons.
  4. Vegetable oil and animal fat can also be extracted.
  5. It is used to deposit silicon carbide.
  6. Adhesives, paints, and sealants all include it.
  7. C3H6 is also extensively used in water heaters and as cooking fuel.
  8. It’s also utilized in aerosol cans as a propellant.
  9. Acrylic acid and propylene are two of their products.

Sample Questions

Question 1: How long does propane last in the atmosphere?


Propane is an alkaline gas that interacts with UV light in the air. It decomposes into carbon dioxide and water when exposed to oxygen. However, this is a lengthy procedure that will take many weeks to complete. Propane has a half-life of roughly 14 days in air at 20° Celsius.

Question 2: What are the Disadvantages of Propane?


Propane has a higher density than air. As a result, it sinks in a confined space and settles on the ground, undetectable. It’s also flammable, which means that if it leaks and comes into touch with other flammable gases, it can explode and cause a fire.

Question 3: Where is propane found?


Propane is typically discovered coupled with natural gas and petroleum deposits in deep subterranean rocks. Propane is a fossil fuel since it was created millions of years ago from the leftovers of microscopic creatures and plants at sea.

Question 4: What are the characteristics of propane?


It’s non-toxic, odourless, and colourless. A characteristic odour, similar to that of natural gas, is used to immediately identify the gas. Propane is available as both an oil and a gas. At atmospheric pressure and temperatures above –44° F.

Question 5: What are the health hazards of Propane?


Propane vaporising liquid can induce gangrene. If the concentration in the air is greater than 10%, it can produce dizziness, and a higher amount can cause asphyxiation. When heated, it creates container explosions. When compared to air, its vapours are thicker. This substance is very flammable.

Question 6: What Happens if the Propane Tank Runs Out?


If the propane tank is empty and the gas line is still exposed, leakage may occur when the tank is refilled with propane. When this happens, moisture and air are drawn into the empty tank, causing rust to form.

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