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# Program to find the final size of Congestion Window in TCP Reno

• Difficulty Level : Expert
• Last Updated : 07 Mar, 2022

Given the initial congestion window size cwnd, threshold value ssthresh, connection time rtt and an array arr where arr[i] implies the time when a packet loss is detected. The task is to find the final congestion window size when all the packet drops are being encountered by the sender.

The TCP Reno follows below conditions:

• The initial value of cwnd is 1.
• Before reaching ssthresh, double cwnd per unit of time. By doubling the value, cwnd can’t cross ssthresh value, it can almost go up to ssthresh value.
• After reaching ssthresh, increase cwnd by 1 per unit of time.
• When there is packet loss, reduce the cwnd and ssthresh to half of cwnd value (50%) and no other updation happens.
• Connection will be active until rtt unit of time.

Examples:

Input arr[] = {16, 22}, ssthresh = 32, rtt = 26
Output: 17
Explanation:
Time = 0: cwnd = 1
Time = 1: cwnd = 2
Time = 2, 3, 4, 5: cwnd = 4, 8, 16, 32
cwnd=ssthresh at time=5, so now onwards cwnd increases by 1 per unit of time.
Time = 6-15: cwnd = 33-42
Time = 16: packet loss is detected, so ssthresh and cwnd will become half of current cwnd value.
cwnd = ssthresh = 21, Note: cwnd is not increased by 1 or doubled in this case.
Time = 17-21: cwnd = 22-26
Time = 22: packet loss is detected, so ssthresh and cwnd will become half of current cwnd value.
cwnd = ssthresh = 13
Time = 23-26: cwnd = 14-17
Final cwnd is = 17

Input arr[] = {12, 25, 37, 42}, ssthresh = 30, rtt = 50
Output: The final cwnd value is= 16
Explanation:
Time = 0: cwnd = 1
Time = 1: cwnd = 2
Time = 2, 3, 4: cwnd = 4, 8, 16
Time = 5: cwnd = 30 {cwnd can’t get doubled because 32>30, it will cross the ssthresh. It can go max upto ssthresg}
Time = 6-11: cwnd = 31-36
Time = 12: cwnd = 36/2 and ssthresh = 18 {Packet loss}
Time = 13-24: cwnd = 19-30
Time = 25: cwnd = ssthresh = 30/2 = 15   {Packet loss}
Time = 26-36: cwnd = 16-26
Time = 37: cwnd = ssthresh = 26/2 = 13   {Packet loss}
Time = 38-41: cwnd = 14-17
Time = 42: cwnd = ssthresh = 17/2 = 8   {Packet loss}
Time = 43-50: cwnd = 9-16
The final cwnd value is= 16

Approach: The solution is based on the comparison of cwnd and ssthresh values.Follow below steps:

• Traverse through all the time units when the connection is alive.
• Store next packet loss time in variable timeout
• Check if the current time is equal to timeout. If it is, then reduce the cwnd and ssthresh = cwnd/2
• If cwnd is less than ssthresh, then double the cwnd value.
• If double of cwnd is greater than ssthresh then set cwnd=ssthresh.
• If cwnd is greater than ssthresh then increment cwnd by 1 per time.
• Return final cwnd value after loop terminates.

Below is the implementation of the above approach.

## C++

 `// C++ code to implement the approach` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `// TCP Reno Utility function` `int` `tcpRenoCongestionWindow(``int` `cwnd,` `                            ``int` `ssthresh, ``int` `rtt,` `                            ``vector<``int``> ``time``)` `{` `    ``int` `ind = 0, timeout = ``time``[ind];` `    ``for` `(``int` `t = 1; t <= rtt; t++) {`   `        ``// Packet loss occurs.` `        ``// Reduce cwnd and ssthresh to` `        ``// half of current cwnd value` `        ``if` `(t == timeout) {` `            ``cwnd = cwnd / 2;` `            ``ssthresh = cwnd;` `            ``timeout = ``time``[++ind];` `            ``continue``;` `        ``}`   `        ``// Threshold is not reached.` `        ``// keep doubling` `        ``if` `(cwnd < ssthresh)` `            ``cwnd = min(2 * cwnd, ssthresh);`   `        ``// Threshold is reached.` `        ``// Increase additively.` `        ``else` `            ``cwnd += 1;` `    ``}`   `    ``// Return final cwnd value.` `    ``return` `cwnd;` `}`   `// Driver code` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `cwnd = 1;` `    ``int` `ssthresh = 30;` `    ``int` `rtt = 50;` `    ``vector<``int``> ``time``{ 12, 25, 37, 42 };` `    ``cwnd = tcpRenoCongestionWindow(cwnd, ssthresh, rtt,` `                                   ``time``);` `    ``cout << ``"Final congestion window size = "` `<< cwnd;` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `// Java code to implement the approach` `import` `java.util.*;` `public` `class` `GFG {`   `  ``// TCP Reno Utility function` `  ``static` `int` `tcpRenoCongestionWindow(``int` `cwnd,` `                                     ``int` `ssthresh,` `                                     ``int` `rtt, ``int``[] time)` `  ``{` `    ``int` `ind = ``0``, timeout = time[ind];` `    ``for` `(``int` `t = ``1``; t <= rtt; t++) {`   `      ``// Packet loss occurs.` `      ``// Reduce cwnd and ssthresh to` `      ``// half of current cwnd value` `      ``if` `(t == timeout) {` `        ``cwnd = cwnd / ``2``;` `        ``ssthresh = cwnd;` `        ``ind += ``1``;` `        ``if` `(ind == time.length) {` `          ``continue``;` `        ``}` `        ``timeout = time[ind];`   `        ``continue``;` `      ``}`   `      ``// Threshold is not reached.` `      ``// keep doubling` `      ``if` `(cwnd < ssthresh)` `        ``cwnd = Math.min(``2` `* cwnd, ssthresh);`   `      ``// Threshold is reached.` `      ``// Increase additively.` `      ``else` `        ``cwnd += ``1``;` `    ``}`   `    ``// Return final cwnd value.` `    ``return` `cwnd;` `  ``}`   `  ``// Driver code` `  ``public` `static` `void` `main(String args[])` `  ``{` `    ``int` `cwnd = ``1``;` `    ``int` `ssthresh = ``30``;` `    ``int` `rtt = ``50``;` `    ``int``[] time = { ``12``, ``25``, ``37``, ``42` `};` `    ``cwnd = tcpRenoCongestionWindow(cwnd, ssthresh, rtt,` `                                   ``time);` `    ``System.out.print(``"Final congestion window size = "` `                     ``+ cwnd);` `  ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Samim Hossain Mondal.`

## Python3

 `# Python 3 code to implement the approach`   `# TCP Reno Utility function` `def` `tcpRenoCongestionWindow(cwnd,` `                            ``ssthresh, rtt, time):`   `    ``ind ``=` `0` `    ``timeout ``=` `time[ind]` `    ``for` `t ``in` `range``(``1``, rtt ``+` `1``):`   `        ``# Packet loss occurs.` `        ``# Reduce cwnd and ssthresh to` `        ``# half of current cwnd value` `        ``if` `(t ``=``=` `timeout):` `            ``cwnd ``=` `cwnd ``/``/` `2` `            ``ssthresh ``=` `cwnd` `            ``ind ``+``=` `1` `            ``if``(ind ``=``=` `len``(time)):` `              ``continue` `            ``timeout ``=` `time[ind]`   `            ``continue`   `        ``# Threshold is not reached.` `        ``# keep doubling` `        ``if` `(cwnd < ssthresh):` `            ``cwnd ``=` `min``(``2` `*` `cwnd, ssthresh)`   `        ``# Threshold is reached.` `        ``# Increase additively.` `        ``else``:` `            ``cwnd ``+``=` `1`   `    ``# Return final cwnd value.` `    ``return` `cwnd`   `# Driver code` `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"``:`   `    ``cwnd ``=` `1` `    ``ssthresh ``=` `30` `    ``rtt ``=` `50` `    ``time ``=` `[``12``, ``25``, ``37``, ``42``]` `    ``cwnd ``=` `tcpRenoCongestionWindow(cwnd, ssthresh, rtt,` `                                   ``time)` `    ``print``(``"Final congestion window size = "``, cwnd)`   `    ``# This code is contributed by ukasp.`

## C#

 `// C# code to implement the approach` `using` `System;` `class` `GFG {`   `  ``// TCP Reno Utility function` `  ``static` `int` `tcpRenoCongestionWindow(``int` `cwnd,` `                                     ``int` `ssthresh,` `                                     ``int` `rtt, ``int``[] time)` `  ``{` `    ``int` `ind = 0, timeout = time[ind];` `    ``for` `(``int` `t = 1; t <= rtt; t++) {`   `      ``// Packet loss occurs.` `      ``// Reduce cwnd and ssthresh to` `      ``// half of current cwnd value` `      ``if` `(t == timeout) {` `        ``cwnd = cwnd / 2;` `        ``ssthresh = cwnd;` `        ``ind += 1;` `        ``if` `(ind == time.Length) {` `          ``continue``;` `        ``}` `        ``timeout = time[ind];`   `        ``continue``;` `      ``}`   `      ``// Threshold is not reached.` `      ``// keep doubling` `      ``if` `(cwnd < ssthresh)` `        ``cwnd = Math.Min(2 * cwnd, ssthresh);`   `      ``// Threshold is reached.` `      ``// Increase additively.` `      ``else` `        ``cwnd += 1;` `    ``}`   `    ``// Return final cwnd value.` `    ``return` `cwnd;` `  ``}`   `  ``// Driver code` `  ``public` `static` `void` `Main()` `  ``{` `    ``int` `cwnd = 1;` `    ``int` `ssthresh = 30;` `    ``int` `rtt = 50;` `    ``int``[] time = { 12, 25, 37, 42 };` `    ``cwnd = tcpRenoCongestionWindow(cwnd, ssthresh, rtt,` `                                   ``time);` `    ``Console.Write(``"Final congestion window size = "` `                  ``+ cwnd);` `  ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by Samim Hossain Mondal.`

## Javascript

 ``

Output

`Final congestion window size = 16`

Time Complexity: O(N), N is the time of connection activeness.
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

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