Process of Motivation
The process of stimulating and inspiring people at work to contribute to the best of their capability for the achievement of organisational objectives is known as Motivation. Motivation is the inner psychological force that activates and compels a person to behave in a particular manner. It is a process of inductive individual desire towards a goal. Human beings drive satisfaction when the goal is achieved. Both financial and non-financial factors motivate employees in the organization.
Definitions of Motivation
“Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goal” – William G. Scout
“Motivation refers to the way, in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings or needs, direct, control and explain the behaviour of human beings” – Mc Farland
“Motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something which moves the person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated” – Robert Dubin
Reason for Motivation
To achieve the goals effectively and efficiently, every manager has a responsibility to get things done by the subordinates. To discharge this responsibility, the manager has to find out:
- What makes people do things?
- What makes people behave the way they do?
- Why some people are reluctant to work though they have the required ability?
- What should be done to make people work efficiently?
The above questions are answered by the process of motivation. It helps the manager to analyse and understand the needs of subordinates and to determine how the subordinate can be inspired to achieve the desired working behaviour. Motivation inspires and encourages people in an organisation to work for the achievement of organisational goals.
Motive, Motivation and Motivators
We need to understand the three interrelated terms while studying Motivation:
- Motive: The inner state or desire that activates, compels and directs the individual to behave in the direction of the achievement of goals is known as Motive. The needs of individuals give rise to motives. An individual’s behaviour consists of some needs, desires and urges, which give rise to drives and motives. When a person recognises some motive, it prompts him to perform some action to reduce such restlessness. For Example, the need for water makes a person thirsty (motive) and this induces him to search for water. Food, security, comfort, recognition, etc., are a few examples of motives.
- Motivation: The process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals is known as Motivation. It depends upon satisfying needs of people.
- Motivator: The technique which is used to motivate people in an organisation is known as Motivator. As motivation is an effort to direct human behaviour towards needs satisfaction, motivators are factors that motivate people. These motivators are of two types: Financial incentives and Non-financial incentives.
Process of Motivation
The process of motivation is based on human needs. The steps of the process of motivation are as follows:
- Unsatisfied Needs: Need is the starting point of motivation. The process always begins when a person feels that there is some unsatisfied need in him.
- Tension: When an unsatisfied need is recognised, a tension is created in the mind of the person.
- Drive: This tension stimulates the drive and compels the person to take action to fulfil his needs.
- Search Behaviour: In this, the drives create a drive to search for different ways or alternatives to relieve the tension.
- Satisfied need: After searching the various options available, the person chooses a particular option. The person evaluates whether his need is satisfied or not as per the chosen option.
- Reduction of Tension: Tension is reduced and the person feels motivated when he is successful in satisfying his needs.
For Example, if a person is thirsty, then the need for water will create tension and he will start thinking of ways to satisfy his needs. It will stimulate his drives and will search for different options, like water, juice, shakes, etc., to satisfy himself. If the need is satisfied through water, then the individual is relieved of tension.
Motivation does not end with the satisfaction of a particular need. Therefore, it can be said that it is a continuous process. So, after the fulfilment of a particular need, another need develops and this process continues.
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