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Prithviraj Chauhan

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Prithviraj III, also known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai  Pithora, was one of the most well-known and greatest Rajput rulers of all time. He is one of the most famous rulers of the Chauhan dynasty, who ruled the Sapada Baksha. The present-day states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and some parts of Punjab were ruled by him. There has been a conflict among historians, of whether he kept Ajmer as his capital or many folk legends describe him as king of India’s political center Delhi.

Areas ruled by Prithviraj Chauhan


Prithviraj Chauhan’s Life

Prithviraj Chauhan was born on the twelfth day of Jyeshtha, the second month in the Hindu calendar corresponding to May to June in the Gregorian calendar. His father Someshvara was the king of Chahamana. His mother, Queen Karpuradevi, was a Kalachuri princess. “Prithviraj Vijaya” is a Sanskrit poem about his life. This poem gives some clues as to the place of his birth but does not give the exact year of his birth. With the help of this poem, an Indian Indologist, Dasharatha Sharma, estimated his year of birth as 1166 AD.

Prithviraj Chauhan was well-educated. It is believed that he was proficient in many subjects such as mathematics, medicine, history, military, defense, painting, theology, and philosophy. He is also good at archery. He loves to fight, and that’s why he can learn difficult fighting techniques quickly. After the death of Prithviraj II, Someshvara, the father of Prithviraj Chauhan, ascended the throne of Chauhan. He was only 11 years old then.

During his early years as king, his mother ran the administrative department supported by a council of regents. During his early reign, he was supported by a number of loyal ministers who helped him rule the kingdom. Kadambavasa (Kaimasa or Kailashwas) was the chief minister during this period. In folklore, he is depicted as a talented general and soldier who devoted his life to its development. Prithviraj Vijaya also states that the Kadambavas played an important role in all the military victories during the early years of Prithviraj’s rule. Another important minister was Bhuvanaikamalla, the biological uncle of Prithviraja’s mother, a very capable general who served Prithviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj Chauhan took effective control of the government in 1180 AD.

Prithviraj Chauhan falls in love with Sanyukta, the daughter of the King of Kannauj, Raja Jaichand. Raja Jaichand does not like this and does not want Prithviraj to marry his daughter. So he organized a “swayamvara” for his daughter. He invited all the princes except Prithviraj. He did this to offend Prithviraj, but his daughter rejected all the other princes. And then she and Prithviraj fled to Delhi, where they later married.

Prithviraj Chauhan: Conflict with the Hindu Rulers

  1. Nagarjuna- Nagarjuna, Prithviraj’s cousin, rebelled against Prithviraj Chauhan when he ascended the throne. Nagarjuna took control of the Gudapura fortress in an attempt to get revenge and show his supremacy over the empire. Prithviraj attacks Gudapur to show her military might. This was one of Prithviraj’s first military victories.
  2. Bhadanakas- After Nagarjuna Prithviraj focused on the neighboring kingdom Bhadanakas. Prithviraj decided to destroy the neighboring kingdom, as the Bhadanaks often threatened to invade the area around present-day Delhi, belonging to the Chahamana dynasty.
  3. Chandelas of Jejakabhukti- According to some Madanpur writings, Prithviraj defeated the Chandela ruler Paramardi in 1182 AD. Due to Prithviraj’s victory over Chandelas, Chandelas became affiliated with the Gahadavalas.
  4. Chalukyas of Gujarat- The struggle between the Prithviraj empire and the Chalukyas of Gujarat is mentioned in the story, but due to the exaggerated tone of the poem, many of the references in the Prithviraj Raso seem questionable. However, some reliable sources mention a peace agreement signed by Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhima II of Chalukyas. This shows that the two kingdoms are at war.
  5. The Gahadavalas of Kannauj- Jayachandra was the ruler of the Gahadavala kingdom, and Prithviraj Chauhan, according to the famous legend of Prithviraj Vijaya, Ain-i-Akbari and Surjana-Charita, disagreed.

Battles led by Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan in the battles of Tarain-Muhammad of Ghor, who wished to expand his empire to the east, was the ruler of the western region of the Chauhan dynasty. Muhammad of Ghor started a war with the Chauhan because he needed to defeat Prithviraj Chauhan to dominate the eastern part of Chauhan Prithviraj and Muhammad of Ghor was involved in at least two wars, despite some rumors of conflict. They were later called the “Battle of Tarain” because they fought near the town of Tarain.

Prithviraj Chauhan at the First Battle of Tarain

Muhammad Ghori led an army into India and captured the important Bathinda Fort. With Bathinda’s fall, the Delhi army took action. Prithviraj Chauhan gathered allies and led an army to fight Muhammed of Ghori. The two armies met in 1191 in the Tarain field, 150 kilometers north of Delhi. Modern sources put Prithviraj Chauhan’s army at 200,000, but modern historians agree that it was his 50,000. Similarly, the size of Grido’s army is estimated at 100,000 men, but historians believe it was slightly smaller than that of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.

The Grid forces had the advantage of the famous archers of the cavalry, and their mobility disadvantaged the Rajput forces, which were mainly infantry. However, the Rajputs possessed the numbers and strength of elephants. Prithvi Raj Chauhan responded immediately with an all-out attack that took the Ghurids by surprise. They were accustomed to the Rajput fighting style, which favored hand-to-hand combat. Pursuing the retreating horse archers, the Rajputs covered much of the ground until they reached Grid’s main army. To their credit, the Ghurid army stood firm and resisted waves of infantry, but the Rajput cavalry began to overwhelm his Ghurid flanks.

Muhammad Ghori found hand-to-hand combat to be very favorable to the Rajputs. Unable to withstand the pressure on their flanks, Mohammed’s army broke into formation and fled. Meanwhile, in the center of Grid, the Rajput elephants pressured the rest of the forces, and they began to falter.

Attempting the salvage a determined situation, Muhammad Ghori charged into the fray hoping to rally his troops. He got here upon the commander of the Rajput forces, Govind Rai. Hurling his spear at Govind Rai, the projectile changed into blocked, and in turn, Govind Rai hurled his very own spear at Muhammad Ghori, its effect knocking him nearly unconscious. His existence changed into stored through his bodyguard who lively him far from the battlefield. Seeing their commander withdrawing from the discipline, the morale of the Ghurids changed similarly damaged, and they ran far from the discipline. The Rajput military pursued the Ghurids for nearly forty kilometers earlier than Prithviraj Chauhan grew to become interested in the direction of laying siege to the citadel press at Bathinda, which fell in 1192.

Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain

The struggle befell inside the equal discipline because of the first one. Knowing the Chauhan forces had been well-disciplined, the Ghurids did now no longer need to interact in melee fights with them. Instead, the Ghurids military changed into shaped into 5 devices, and 4 devices had been despatched to assault the enemy flanks and rear.

According to Minhaj, Mu’izz ad-Din directed a mild cavalry pressure of 10,000 set-up archers, divided into 4 divisions, to surround the Chauhan forces on the 4 sides. He informed those infantrymen now no longer to interact in a fight whilst the enemy superior to assault and alternatively feign retreat that allows you to exhaust the Chauhan elephants, horses, and infantry.

In hopes of inflicting a spoil within the enemy lines, Mu’izz al-Din ordered his 5th unit to feign retreat. The Chauhan forces charged the fleeing Ghurid unit because the Ghurids expected. The Ghurids then despatched a clean cavalry unit of 12,000 that they controlled to throw returned the enemy advance. The ultimate Ghurid forces then attacked and the Chauhan troops fled in panic. According to Minhaj, Mu’izz ad-Din’s strategy “exhausted and wearied the unbelievers”, in the long run ensuing in a “victory to Islam”.He was eventually defeated by Ghor in the Second Battle of Tarain, allowing Muhammad Ghor to conquer Chauhan.

Death of Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan’s death is unclear, when and exactly how he died. According to many medieval stories, Muhammad of Ghor brought Prithviraj to Ajmer. There, Prithviraj was imprisoned as a worker of the Ghurids. Prithviraj rebelled against Muhammad of Ghor and was later executed for his disloyalty. A coin was found. They are “horse and cow” coins with the name “Muhammad bin Sam” on one side and “Prithviraj” on the other. This work allows the authorities to come up with this theory. Different sources give different explanations for Prithviraj Chauhan’s disappearance.

Hasan Nizami is an Islamic historian He claims that Prithviraj Chauhan was killed by the king after the king discovered he was involved in a plot against Muhammad of Ghor. Hasan Nizami did not fully disclose the details of the composition of the plot. To kill Muhammad of Ghor, Prithviraj Chauhan requested a bow and arrow. Besides giving him the necessary weapons, the Minister also told Muhammad about the secret strategy Prithviraj was planning to kill him. After the kidnapping, Prithviraj Chauhan was thrown into a pit and stoned to death.

Prithviraj Chauhan: Legacy

At its peak, Prithviraj Chauhan’s empire stretched from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the foothills of Mount Abu in the south. From east to west, his empire stretched from the Betwa River to the Sutlej River. This approach that his empire included (present-day known as Rajasthan, western Uttar Pradesh, northern Madhya Pradesh, and southern Punjab. After Prithviraj Chauhan died he changed into portrayed as an effective Hindu king who controlled to hold Muslim invaders at bay for lots of years. It is likewise frequently depicted as an image of Indian strength earlier than the onset of Islamic rule in medieval India. Prithviraj Chauhan’s heroic achievements were depicted in Indian movies and TV serials such as “Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan” and “Veer Yodha Prithviraj Chauhan.” There are many monuments in Ajmer, Delhi, and different locations that honor the chivalrous Rajput ruler.

FAQs on Prithviraj Chauhan

Question 1: In which year did Prithviraj Chauhan die?


Prithviraj Chauhan died in the year 1192.

Question 2: Who killed Prithviraj Chauhan?


Muhammad of Ghor killed Prithviraj Chauhan.

Question 3: Who ruled after Prithviraj Chauhan?


Prithviraj Chauhan was succeeded by his son Govindraja IV. He moved to Rathambhor and created a powerful Chauhan Kingdom there.

Question 4: At which place Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan?


Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain.

Question 5: Who refused to help Prithviraj Chauhan?


Jayachandra, ruler of Kannauj was a relative of Prithviraj Chauhan but were enemies and he refused to help Prithviraj against Mohammad Ghori.

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Last Updated : 09 Jan, 2023
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