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# Print all subsets of given size of a set

• Difficulty Level : Hard
• Last Updated : 30 Dec, 2022

Generate all possible subsets of size r of the given array with distinct elements.

Examples:

```Input  : arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 4}
r = 2
Output :  1 2
1 3
1 4
2 3
2 4
3 4

Input  : arr[] = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
r = 3
Output : 10 20 30
10 20 40
10 20 50
10 30 40
10 30 50
10 40 50
20 30 40
20 30 50
20 40 50
30 40 50 ```

This problem is the same Print all possible combinations of r elements in a given array of size n.
The idea here is similar to Subset Sum Problem. We, one by one, consider every element of the input array, and recur for two cases:

1. The element is included in the current combination (We put the element in data[] and increase the next available index in data[])
2. The element is excluded in the current combination (We do not put the element in and do not change the index)

When the number of elements in data[] becomes equal to r (size of a combination), we print it.

This method is mainly based on Pascal’s Identity, i.e. ncr = n-1cr + n-1cr-1

Implementation:

## C++

 `// C++ Program to print all combination of size r in` `// an array of size n` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std;`   `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r,` `                     ``int` `index, ``int` `data[], ``int` `i);` ` `  `// The main function that prints all combinations of ` `// size r in arr[] of size n. This function mainly` `// uses combinationUtil()` `void` `printCombination(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r)` `{` `  `  `    ``// A temporary array to store all combination` `    ``// one by one` `    ``int` `data[r];` ` `  `    ``// Print all combination using temporary array 'data[]'` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, 0, data, 0);` `}` ` `  `/* arr[]  ---> Input Array` `   ``n      ---> Size of input array` `   ``r      ---> Size of a combination to be printed` `   ``index  ---> Current index in data[]` `   ``data[] ---> Temporary array to store current combination` `   ``i      ---> index of current element in arr[]     */` `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r, ``int` `index,` `                     ``int` `data[], ``int` `i)` `{` `    ``// Current combination is ready, print it` `    ``if` `(index == r) {` `        ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < r; j++)` `            ``cout <<``" "``<< data[j];` `        ``cout <<``"\n"``;` `        ``return``;` `    ``}` ` `  `    ``// When no more elements are there to put in data[]` `    ``if` `(i >= n)` `        ``return``;` ` `  `    ``// current is included, put next at next location` `    ``data[index] = arr[i];` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index + 1, data, i + 1);` ` `  `    ``// current is excluded, replace it with next` `    ``// (Note that i+1 is passed, but index is not` `    ``// changed)` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index, data, i + 1);` `}` ` `  `// Driver program to test above functions` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 };` `    ``int` `r = 3;` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    ``printCombination(arr, n, r);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`   `// This code is contributed by shivanisinghss2110`

## C

 `// C++ Program to print all combination of size r in` `// an array of size n` `#include ` `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r,` `                     ``int` `index, ``int` `data[], ``int` `i);`   `// The main function that prints all combinations of ` `// size r in arr[] of size n. This function mainly` `// uses combinationUtil()` `void` `printCombination(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r)` `{` `    ``// A temporary array to store all combination` `    ``// one by one` `    ``int` `data[r];`   `    ``// Print all combination using temporary array 'data[]'` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, 0, data, 0);` `}`   `/* arr[]  ---> Input Array` `   ``n      ---> Size of input array` `   ``r      ---> Size of a combination to be printed` `   ``index  ---> Current index in data[]` `   ``data[] ---> Temporary array to store current combination` `   ``i      ---> index of current element in arr[]     */` `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r, ``int` `index,` `                     ``int` `data[], ``int` `i)` `{` `    ``// Current combination is ready, print it` `    ``if` `(index == r) {` `        ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < r; j++)` `            ``printf``(``"%d "``, data[j]);` `        ``printf``(``"\n"``);` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``// When no more elements are there to put in data[]` `    ``if` `(i >= n)` `        ``return``;`   `    ``// current is included, put next at next location` `    ``data[index] = arr[i];` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index + 1, data, i + 1);`   `    ``// current is excluded, replace it with next` `    ``// (Note that i+1 is passed, but index is not` `    ``// changed)` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index, data, i + 1);` `}`   `// Driver program to test above functions` `int` `main()` `{` `    ``int` `arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 };` `    ``int` `r = 3;` `    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr);` `    ``printCombination(arr, n, r);` `    ``return` `0;` `}`

## Java

 `// Java program to print all combination of size` `// r in an array of size n` `import` `java.io.*;`   `class` `Permutation {`   `    ``/* arr[]  ---> Input Array` `    ``data[] ---> Temporary array to store current combination` `    ``start & end ---> Starting and Ending indexes in arr[]` `    ``index  ---> Current index in data[]` `    ``r ---> Size of a combination to be printed */` `    ``static` `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r,` `                          ``int` `index, ``int` `data[], ``int` `i)` `    ``{` `        ``// Current combination is ready to be printed, ` `        ``// print it` `        ``if` `(index == r) {` `            ``for` `(``int` `j = ``0``; j < r; j++)` `                ``System.out.print(data[j] + ``" "``);` `            ``System.out.println(``""``);` `            ``return``;` `        ``}`   `        ``// When no more elements are there to put in data[]` `        ``if` `(i >= n)` `            ``return``;`   `        ``// current is included, put next at next` `        ``// location` `        ``data[index] = arr[i];` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index + ``1``, ` `                               ``data, i + ``1``);`   `        ``// current is excluded, replace it with` `        ``// next (Note that i+1 is passed, but` `        ``// index is not changed)` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index, data, i + ``1``);` `    ``}`   `    ``// The main function that prints all combinations` `    ``// of size r in arr[] of size n. This function ` `    ``// mainly uses combinationUtil()` `    ``static` `void` `printCombination(``int` `arr[], ``int` `n, ``int` `r)` `    ``{` `        ``// A temporary array to store all combination` `        ``// one by one` `        ``int` `data[] = ``new` `int``[r];`   `        ``// Print all combination using temporary` `        ``// array 'data[]'` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, ``0``, data, ``0``);` `    ``}`   `    ``/* Driver function to check for above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` `    ``{` `        ``int` `arr[] = { ``10``, ``20``, ``30``, ``40``, ``50` `};` `        ``int` `r = ``3``;` `        ``int` `n = arr.length;` `        ``printCombination(arr, n, r);` `    ``}` `}` `/* This code is contributed by Devesh Agrawal */`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to print all` `# subset combination of n ` `# element in given set of r element .`   `# arr[] ---> Input Array` `# data[] ---> Temporary array to ` `#             store current combination` `# start & end ---> Starting and Ending ` `#                  indexes in arr[]` `# index ---> Current index in data[]` `# r ---> Size of a combination ` `#        to be printed ` `def` `combinationUtil(arr, n, r, ` `                    ``index, data, i):` `    ``# Current combination is ` `    ``# ready to be printed,` `    ``# print it` `    ``if``(index ``=``=` `r):` `        ``for` `j ``in` `range``(r):` `            ``print``(data[j], end ``=` `" "``)` `        ``print``(``" "``)` `        ``return`   `    ``# When no more elements ` `    ``# are there to put in data[]` `    ``if``(i >``=` `n):` `        ``return`   `    ``# current is included, ` `    ``# put next at next` `    ``# location ` `    ``data[index] ``=` `arr[i]` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, ` `                    ``index ``+` `1``, data, i ``+` `1``)` `    `  `    ``# current is excluded, ` `    ``# replace it with` `    ``# next (Note that i+1 ` `    ``# is passed, but index ` `    ``# is not changed)` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index, ` `                    ``data, i ``+` `1``)`     `# The main function that` `# prints all combinations` `# of size r in arr[] of ` `# size n. This function ` `# mainly uses combinationUtil()` `def` `printcombination(arr, n, r):`   `    ``# A temporary array to` `    ``# store all combination` `    ``# one by one` `    ``data ``=` `list``(``range``(r))` `    `  `    ``# Print all combination ` `    ``# using temporary ` `    ``# array 'data[]'` `    ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, ` `                    ``0``, data, ``0``)`     `# Driver Code` `arr ``=` `[``10``, ``20``, ``30``, ``40``, ``50``]`   `r ``=` `3` `n ``=` `len``(arr)` `printcombination(arr, n, r)`   `# This code is contributed` `# by Ambuj sahu`

## C#

 `// C# program to print all combination` `// of size r in an array of size n` `using` `System;`   `class` `GFG {`   `    ``/* arr[] ---> Input Array` `    ``data[] ---> Temporary array to store` `    ``current combination start & end --->` `    ``Starting and Ending indexes in arr[]` `    ``index ---> Current index in data[]` `    ``r ---> Size of a combination to be` `    ``printed */` `    ``static` `void` `combinationUtil(``int` `[]arr,` `                  ``int` `n, ``int` `r, ``int` `index,` `                          ``int` `[]data, ``int` `i)` `    ``{` `        `  `        ``// Current combination is ready to` `        ``// be printed, print it` `        ``if` `(index == r)` `        ``{` `            ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < r; j++)` `                ``Console.Write(data[j] + ``" "``);` `                `  `            ``Console.WriteLine(``""``);` `            `  `            ``return``;` `        ``}`   `        ``// When no more elements are there` `        ``// to put in data[]` `        ``if` `(i >= n)` `            ``return``;`   `        ``// current is included, put next` `        ``// at next location` `        ``data[index] = arr[i];` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index + 1, ` `                                ``data, i + 1);`   `        ``// current is excluded, replace` `        ``// it with next (Note that i+1 ` `        ``// is passed, but index is not` `        ``// changed)` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, index,` `                                ``data, i + 1);` `    ``}`   `    ``// The main function that prints all` `    ``// combinations of size r in arr[] of` `    ``// size n. This function mainly uses` `    ``// combinationUtil()` `    ``static` `void` `printCombination(``int` `[]arr,` `                                ``int` `n, ``int` `r)` `    ``{` `        `  `        ``// A temporary array to store all` `        ``// combination one by one` `        ``int` `[]data = ``new` `int``[r];`   `        ``// Print all combination using` `        ``// temporary array 'data[]'` `        ``combinationUtil(arr, n, r, 0, data, 0);` `    ``}`   `    ``/* Driver function to check for` `    ``above function */` `    ``public` `static` `void` `Main()` `    ``{` `        ``int` `[]arr = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 };` `        ``int` `r = 3;` `        ``int` `n = arr.Length;` `        `  `        ``printCombination(arr, n, r);` `    ``}` `}`   `// This code is contributed by vt_m.`

## PHP

 ` Input Array` `n ---> Size of input array` `r ---> Size of a combination to be printed` `index ---> Current index in data[]` `data[] ---> Temporary array to store ` `current combination` `i ---> index of current element in arr[] */` `function` `combinationUtil( ``\$arr``, ``\$n``, ``\$r``, ``\$index``,` `                    ``\$data``, ``\$i``)` `{` `    ``// Current combination is ready, print it` `    ``if` `(``\$index` `== ``\$r``) {` `        ``for` `( ``\$j` `= 0; ``\$j` `< ``\$r``; ``\$j``++)` `            ``echo` `\$data``[``\$j``],``" "``;` `        ``echo` `"\n"``;` `        ``return``;` `    ``}`   `    ``// When no more elements are there to` `    ``// put in data[]` `    ``if` `(``\$i` `>= ``\$n``)` `        ``return``;`   `    ``// current is included, put next at ` `    ``// next location` `    ``\$data``[``\$index``] = ``\$arr``[``\$i``];` `    ``combinationUtil(``\$arr``, ``\$n``, ``\$r``, ``\$index` `+ 1, ` `                              ``\$data``, ``\$i` `+ 1);`   `    ``// current is excluded, replace it with` `    ``// next (Note that i+1 is passed, but ` `    ``// index is not changed)` `    ``combinationUtil(``\$arr``, ``\$n``, ``\$r``, ``\$index``, ` `                            ``\$data``, ``\$i` `+ 1);` `}`   `// Driver program to test above functions` `    ``\$arr` `= ``array``( 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 );` `    ``\$r` `= 3;` `    ``\$n` `= ``count``(``\$arr``);` `    ``printCombination(``\$arr``, ``\$n``, ``\$r``);`   `// This code is contributed by anuj_67.` `?>`

## Javascript

 ``

Output

``` 10 20 30
10 20 40
10 20 50
10 30 40
10 30 50
10 40 50
20 30 40
20 30 50
20 40 50
30 40 50```

Time complexity of this algorithm is O(nCr). The outer loop runs n times and the inner loop runs r times.
Auxiliary Space: O(r), the space complexity is O(r) because we are creating a temporary array of size r and storing the combinations
in it.

Refer to the post below for more solutions and ideas to handle duplicates in the input array.
Print all possible combinations of r elements in a given array of size n.

This article is contributed by Dhiman Mayank. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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