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# Precedence Graph For Testing Conflict Serializability in DBMS

Prerequisite: Conflict Serializability Precedence Graph or Serialization Graph is used commonly to test Conflict Serializability of a schedule. It is a directed Graph (V, E) consisting of a set of nodes V = {T1, T2, T3……….Tn} and a set of directed edges E = {e1, e2, e3………………em}. The graph contains one node for each Transaction Ti. An edge ei is of the form Tj –> Tk where Tj is the starting node of ei and Tk is the ending node of ei. An edge ei is constructed between nodes Tj to Tk if one of the operations in Tj appears in the schedule before some conflicting operation in Tk . The Algorithm can be written as:

1. Create a node T in the graph for each participating transaction in the schedule.
2. For the conflicting operation read_item(X) and write_item(X) – If a Transaction Tj executes a read_item (X) after Ti executes a write_item (X), draw an edge from Ti to Tj in the graph.
3. For the conflicting operation write_item(X) and read_item(X) – If a Transaction Tj executes a write_item (X) after Ti executes a read_item (X), draw an edge from Ti to Tj in the graph.
4. For the conflicting operation write_item(X) and write_item(X) – If a Transaction Tj executes a write_item (X) after Ti executes a write_item (X), draw an edge from Ti to Tj in the graph.
5. The Schedule S is serializable if there is no cycle in the precedence graph.

If there is no cycle in the precedence graph, it means we can construct a serial schedule S’ which is conflict equivalent to schedule S. The serial schedule S’ can be found by Topological Sorting of the acyclic precedence graph. Such schedules can be more than 1. For example, Consider the schedule S :

` S : r1(x) r1(y) w2(x) w1(x) r2(y) `

Creating Precedence graph:

1. Make two nodes corresponding to Transaction T1 and T2.
2. For the conflicting pair r1(x) w2(x), where r1(x) happens before w2(x), draw an edge from T1 to T2.
3. For the conflicting pair w2(x) w1(x), where w2(x) happens before w1(x), draw an edge from T2 to T1.

Since the graph is cyclic, we can conclude that it is not conflict serializable to any schedule serial schedule. Let us try to infer a serial schedule from this graph using topological ordering. The edge T1–>T2 tells that T1 should come before T2 in the linear ordering. The edge T2 –> T1 tells that T2 should come before T1 in the linear ordering. So, we can not predict any particular order (when the graph is cyclic). Therefore, no serial schedule can be obtained from this graph.
Consider the another schedule S1 :

` S1: r1(x) r3(y) w1(x) w2(y) r3(x) w2(x)`

The graph for this schedule is : Since the graph is acyclic, the schedule is conflict serializable. Performing Topological Sort on this graph would give us a possible serial schedule that is conflict equivalent to schedule S1. In Topological Sort, we first select the node with in-degree 0, which is T1. This would be followed by T3 and T2. So, S1 is conflict serializable since it is conflict equivalent to the serial schedule T1 T3 T2. Source: Operating Systems book, Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne

In DBMS, a precedence graph is used to test for conflict serializability, which is a property of a schedule that ensures that the transactions in the schedule can be executed in a serial order without any conflicts. The precedence graph is a directed graph that represents the transaction dependencies in the schedule.

### Here are the steps to construct a precedence graph:

1. Draw a node for each transaction in the schedule.
2. For each pair of conflicting operations (i.e., operations on the same data item by different transactions), draw an edge from the transaction that performed the first operation to the transaction that performed the second operation. The edge represents a dependency between the two transactions.
3. If there are multiple conflicting operations between two transactions, draw multiple edges between the corresponding nodes.
4. If there are no conflicting operations between two transactions, do not draw an edge between them.
5. Once all the edges have been added to the graph, check if the graph contains any cycles. If the graph contains cycles, then the schedule is not conflict serializable. Otherwise, the schedule is conflict serializable.

The precedence graph provides a visual representation of the dependencies between transactions in a schedule and allows us to determine whether the schedule is conflict serializable or not. By constructing the precedence graph, we can identify the transactions that have conflicts and reorder them to produce a conflict serializable schedule, which is a schedule that can be transformed into a serial schedule by swapping non-conflicting operations.

### Advantages of Precedence Graphs for Testing Conflict Serializability:

Easy to understand: Precedence graphs are a visual representation of the dependencies between transactions, which makes them easy to understand.

Quick analysis: Precedence graphs can be used to quickly determine whether a set of transactions is conflict serializable or not.

Detection of anomalies: Precedence graphs can detect anomalies that might not be immediately apparent, such as cycles or deadlocks.

Helps in optimization: Precedence graphs can be used to optimize the performance of a database system by identifying transactions that can be executed in parallel.

### Disadvantages of Precedence Graphs for Testing Conflict Serializability:

Complex for large systems: Precedence graphs can become very complex for large database systems, making it difficult to identify dependencies between transactions.

May not identify all conflicts: Precedence graphs may not identify all conflicts between transactions, which can lead to incorrect results.

Requires manual effort: The construction of precedence graphs requires manual effort and can be time-consuming, especially for large systems.

Limited applicability: Precedence graphs are only applicable for testing conflict serializability and cannot be used to detect other types of anomalies, such as data races or deadlocks.

This article is contributed by Saloni Baweja. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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