Poverty as seen by Social Scientists
Poverty occurs when a person is unable to obtain the most basic necessities of life. When parents are unable to send their children to school, or when sick people cannot afford treatment, and families lack proper clean water, sanitation, and regular employment. In this state of poverty, poor people are mistreated and exploited in almost every setting, including farms, factories, government offices, hospitals, and railway stations.
Poverty analysis by Social Scientists
Poverty has may cause but social scientists look in the following way with different variety of indicators: Income and level of consumption are usually used as an indicator of poverty. Social scientists have a different view of poverty from many other parameters like:
- Lack of nutrition
- Less job opportunities
- Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation, etc.
Poverty, according to this idea, is defined as the poor being confined to a poor environment with other poor people, deprived of the social equality enjoyed by well-off individuals in better environments. It can be both a cause and a result of poverty. It’s a system in which certain people or groups are denied access to facilities, perks, and opportunities that others have.
In India, for example, the caste system operates in such a way that people from specific castes are denied equal chances. As a result, social isolation can do more harm than having a very low income.
Hence, People have been excluded from enjoying the social equality of better-off people in better surroundings because they are living in poor surroundings with poor people, It can be both consequence or cause of poverty. So in India, social exclusion is based on caste-like people belonging to scheduled castes, and scheduled tribes were prevented from enjoying equal facilities, benefits, and opportunities as compared to the rest section of the society.
Vulnerability refers to the certain amount of perception that describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals becoming or meaning poor in the coming years.
It is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health facilities. As well as they are the most who faced the higher risks of natural disaster as they don’t have proper facilities like an earthquake, tsunami, etc.
Hence, Vulnerability to poverty is an indicator that shows the chance of particular groups (such as backward caste members) or individuals (such as widows or physically challenged people) becoming or being poor in the next years.
Question 1: Explain two impacts of poverty in India?
The two impacts of poverty are,
Child Exploitation – Some of the large families are unable to meet the monetary needs of the members as a result children of low age 6-7years has started for looking job and to start earning in order to contribute to the family income.
Homelessness – As poverty increase then the condition of homelessness increases as they already have a lack of basic facilities and homelessness, it leads to affect child health, woman’s safety, and overall health issues for aged people and also increase in criminal activity.
Question 2: How India can overcome poverty in the future?
India can overcome poverty by improving some of the factors –
- Boost economic growth.
- Planning for universal free elementary education.
- By declining or maintaining population growth.
- Focusing on women’s empowerment.
Question 3: How the industry is the cause of poverty?
There is a lack of industrialization in India. From an industrial point of view, India is very backward, around 3 percent of the total working population is engaged in large-scale industry. As the British colonial government has ruined the traditional industries and also discourage the development of industry in India.
Question 4: Give one non-economic factor which is responsible for unemployment?
Overpopulation is one of the non-economic factors which are responsible for unemployment, as over-population has been rising in India at a very rapid rate but job opportunities are not increasing at the same rate, this causes the increase in unemployment in India.
Question 5: Explain the indirect approach taken by the government to remove poverty?
To eradicate poverty government has adopted an indirect approach, In this approach, they have promoted the small-scale industry and education of agriculture for achieving high economic growth. This approach is also known as the trickle-down effect. This was assumed that the development of industry and agriculture will create employment opportunities and income.