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# Php Program for Ceiling in a sorted array

Given a sorted array and a value x, the ceiling of x is the smallest element in array greater than or equal to x, and the floor is the greatest element smaller than or equal to x. Assume than the array is sorted in non-decreasing order. Write efficient functions to find floor and ceiling of x.
Examples :

```For example, let the input array be {1, 2, 8, 10, 10, 12, 19}
For x = 0:    floor doesn't exist in array,  ceil  = 1
For x = 1:    floor  = 1,  ceil  = 1
For x = 5:    floor  = 2,  ceil  = 8
For x = 20:   floor  = 19,  ceil doesn't exist in array```

In below methods, we have implemented only ceiling search functions. Floor search can be implemented in the same way.
Method 1 (Linear Search)
Algorithm to search ceiling of x:
1) If x is smaller than or equal to the first element in array then return 0(index of first element)
2) Else Linearly search for an index i such that x lies between arr[i] and arr[i+1].
3) If we do not find an index i in step 2, then return -1

## PHP

 `= ``\$x``)` `            ``return` `\$i` `+ 1;` `    ``}     ` `    `  `    ``// If we reach here then x is greater ` `    ``// than the last element of the array,` `    ``// return -1 in this case ` `    ``return` `-1;` `}`   `// Driver Code` `\$arr` `= ``array``(1, 2, 8, 10, 10, 12, 19);` `\$n` `= sizeof(``\$arr``);` `\$x` `= 3;` `\$index` `= ceilSearch(``\$arr``, 0, ``\$n` `- 1, ``\$x``);` `if``(``\$index` `== -1)` `    ``echo``(``"Ceiling of "` `. ``\$x` `. ` `         ``" doesn't exist in array "``);` `else` `    ``echo``(``"ceiling of "` `. ``\$x` `. ``" is "` `. ` `                        ``\$arr``[``\$index``]);`   `// This code is contributed by Ajit.` `?>`

Output :

`ceiling of 3 is 8`

Time Complexity : O(n)

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

As constant extra space is used.
Method 2 (Binary Search)
Instead of using linear search, binary search is used here to find out the index. Binary search reduces time complexity to O(Logn).

## PHP

 ` ``\$arr``[``\$high``])` `        ``return` `-1; ` `    `  `    ``/* get the index of middle` `       ``element of arr[low..high] */` `    ``// low + (high - low)/2` `    ``\$mid` `= (``\$low` `+ ``\$high``)/2; ` `    `  `    ``/* If x is same as middle element,` `       ``then return mid */` `    ``if``(``\$arr``[``\$mid``] == ``\$x``)` `        ``return` `\$mid``;` `        `  `    ``/* If x is greater than arr[mid],` `       ``then either arr[mid + 1]    is ` `       ``ceiling of x or ceiling lies ` `       ``in arr[mid+1...high] */` `    ``else` `if``(``\$arr``[``\$mid``] < ``\$x``)` `    ``{` `        ``if``(``\$mid` `+ 1 <= ``\$high` `&& ` `           ``\$x` `<= ``\$arr``[``\$mid` `+ 1])` `            ``return` `\$mid` `+ 1;` `        ``else` `            ``return` `ceilSearch(``\$arr``, ``\$mid` `+ 1, ` `                              ``\$high``, ``\$x``);` `    ``}` `    `  `    ``/* If x is smaller than arr[mid],` `       ``then either arr[mid] is ceiling` `       ``of x or ceiling lies in ` `       ``arr[low....mid-1] */` `    ``else` `    ``{` `        ``if``(``\$mid` `- 1 >= ``\$low` `&& ` `           ``\$x` `> ``\$arr``[``\$mid` `- 1])` `            ``return` `\$mid``;` `        ``else` `         ``return` `ceilSearch(``\$arr``, ``\$low``, ` `                           ``\$mid` `- 1, ``\$x``);` `    ``}` `}`   `// Driver Code` `\$arr` `= ``array``(1, 2, 8, 10, 10, 12, 19);` `\$n` `= sizeof(``\$arr``);` `\$x` `= 20;` `\$index` `= ceilSearch(``\$arr``, 0, ``\$n` `- 1, ``\$x``);` `if``(``\$index` `== -1)` `    ``echo``(``"Ceiling of \$x doesn't exist in array "``);` `else` `    ``echo``(``"ceiling of \$x is"``); ` `    ``echo``(isset(``\$arr``[``\$index``]));`   `// This code is contributed by nitin mittal.` `?>`

Output :

`Ceiling of 20 doesn't exist in array `

Time Complexity: O(Logn)

Auxiliary Space: O(Logn)

The extra space is used in recursive call stack.

Related Articles:
Floor in a Sorted Array
Find floor and ceil in an unsorted array
Please write comments if you find any of the above codes/algorithms incorrect, or find better ways to solve the same problem, or want to share code for floor implementation.

Please refer complete article on Ceiling in a sorted array for more details!

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