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Periodic Acid Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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Periodic Acid consists of elements Hydrogen, Iodine, and Oxygen. Hydrogen is the lightest, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and flammable gas. Its atomic number is 1 and is represented by the symbol H. Iodine is a non-metallic, lustrous, and solid element present in group-17 of the periodic table. It appears in dark-grey color. Its atomic number is 53 and is represented by the symbol I. In its group, Iodine is the highly electropositive and least reactive element. Oxygen is a highly reactive nonmetal present in the chalcogen group, i.e., group-16. Its atomic number is 8 and is represented by the symbol O.

Periodic Acid

Periodic Acid is a colorless crystalline compound that is soluble in water and alcohol. It is discovered by Heinrich Gustav Magnus and C. F. Ammermuller in the year 1833. Periodic Acid exists in two forms: Meta Periodic Acid with chemical formula HIO4 and Ortho Periodic Acid with chemical formula H5IO6. It is the highest oxoacid of Iodine as it is seen in oxidation state VII. Periodic acid is any of the various Iodine Oxides that contain more oxygen than Iodic acid. The other names of Periodic Acid are Hydrogen periodate, Paraperiodic acid, and Iodic(VII) acid.

Structure of Periodic Acid

Periodic Acid Structure 

Physical Properties of Periodic Acid

  • The chemical formula of Periodic Acid is HIO4.
  • The molecular weight of Periodic Acid is 191.908 g/mol.
  • The melting point of Periodic Acid is 128.5°C.
  • Conjugate base is Periodate.

Chemical Properties of Periodic Acid

  • Periodic Acid is soluble in water and alcohol.
  • On heating, Ortho periodic acid is dehydrated into meta periodic acid.
  • Periodic acid and its salts are strong oxidizing agents.

Uses of Periodic Acid

  • Periodic acid is used to analyze the structural properties of carbohydrates.
  • It is used to separate ammonia (NH3) from hydroxy amino acids and produce acetaldehyde and higher aldehydes.
  • Periodic acid is used as a powerful oxidizing agent.

Sample Questions

Question 1: Find the Molecular Weight of compound HIO4.


Periodic formula consists of 1 Hydrogen, 1 Iodine and 4 Oxygen atoms.

Atomic weight of Hydrogen = 1.00784

Atomic weight of Iodine = 126.90447

Atomic weight of each Oxygen atom = 15.999

Molar Mass of HIO4 = 1.00784 + 126.90447 + (4 × 15.999)

= 191.908

Question 2: What are the uses of Periodic Acid?


Periodic acid is used in the synthesis of alkali metal iodates. It is used in aniline chemical polymerization, oxidation of organic sulfides, sulfoxides, halides and in situ iodine generation. Periodic acid is also used to separate ammonia from hydroxy amino acids.

Question 3: What is the pH of Periodic acid?


The name  of the compound periodic acid represents that it is acidic in nature and for any acid pH value should be less than 7. The pH value of periodic acid is 1.2

Question 4: What are the ions present in Periodic Acid?


Periodic Acid exists in two forms- Meta periodic acid and Ortho periodic acid. In dilute aqueous solution it exists in Meta Periodic acid and has discrete hydronium and metaperiodate ions. When in more concentrated it exists in orthoperiodic acid and has hydronium and orthoperiodate ions.

Question 5: Is Periodic Acid health-hazardous?


Yes. Periodic Acid is hazardous to health. It cause pain and may damage to digestive tract. It also lead to swelling of the throat, convulsions and possible coma.

Question 6: What are the safety precautions to be taken while handling Periodic Acid?


As it is a acid we need take some precautions while using periodic acid. Avoid contact of periodic acid to any of the body part. Wear full chemical protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus.

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Last Updated : 23 May, 2022
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