Skip to content
Related Articles
Get the best out of our app
Open App

Related Articles


Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article
Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article

Parturition is the birth of a child. Pregnancy, in which a baby develops inside a woman’s uterus, culminates in childbirth. Labour is another name for childbirth. Human pregnancies last about nine months from conception to labor. After a human female’s 280-day gestation period, parturition refers to removing the completely developed young one from the mother’s uterus. It can also be called labor.

Human pregnancies last roughly nine months on average. Following this interval, the uterus contracts ferociously, resulting in the evacuation or delivery of the fetus.

Parturition refers to the delivery or ejection of the fetus.

Stages of Parturition 

There are three stages of parturition listed below 


When labor begins, the first stage of parturition begins. Up until the cervix is fully dilated, it continues. There are two stages to this dilation:

  • Latent phase: Cervix dilation ranges from 0 to 4 centimeters (cm).
  • Active phase: 4 to 10 cm of the cervix has dilated.

A lady who is giving birth for the first time needs roughly six hours to complete the latent period. Women who have previously given birth need about five hours. The latent phase may last 8 to 12 hours for certain women. For a woman giving birth for the first time, the cervix should dilate at a rate of roughly 1 cm per hour during the active phase. The average rate for a woman who has previously given birth vaginally is 2 cm per hour.


At full dilation, the second stage of parturition begins and lasts until delivery. This stage has two phases as well :

  • Passive phase: The head of the infant descends into the vagina.
  • Active phase: In order to push or time her abdominal muscles with her uterine contractions, the mother feels the need to push.

For a woman having her first child, the active period lasts approximately 45 minutes. The active period for vaginally delivered women lasts for roughly 30 minutes. The baby’s delivery marks the conclusion of stage 2. The umbilical cord is now clamped, and stage 3 breastfeeding is frequently promoted.


After birth, the third stage of parturition begins, and it concludes with the delivery of the afterbirth (placenta and membranes). Stage 3 usually takes five minutes or less if the doctor is actively involved, for as by gently pushing on the placenta. Stage 3 might persist for up to 30 minutes if the placenta is delivered naturally.

Hormones involved in Parturition 

Are you curious about the hormones that trigger parturition? Stage 3 involves the feminine hormones relaxin, oxytocin, prostaglandin, and estrogen.

  • Estrogen: The main female sex hormone, estrogen, has a major role in uterine contractions.
  • Oxytocin: It aids in the flow of milk during nursing and uterine contractions during parturition.
  • Relaxin: It relaxes and opens up the cervix and loosens the pelvic ligaments.
  • Prostaglandin: It is produced in the amnion and chorion and aids in the ripening of the cervix, altering the membrane structures, and contracting the myometrium.

Signs and Symptoms of Parturition 

  • Restlessness
  • Mucous Discharge
  • Bloating 
  • Labour and Contractions 
  • Development of mammary glands and milk secretion  
  • Entirely swollen vulva
  • Relaxed pelvic ligaments

Complications during Childbirth  

Each of the three parturition steps can occasionally be complicated. The following are some of the most typical complications:

Fetal Distress

Usually, fetal discomfort is characterized by a drop in the infant’s heart rate. In order to expedite the birth, a doctor typically uses a vacuum extractor or forceps. If that doesn’t work, cesarean (C-section) delivery may be necessary. This procedure is to deliver the child.

Nuchal Cord

The umbilical cord now wraps around the infant’s neck. Although a nuchal cord doesn’t necessarily indicate that the kid is in danger, it could become problematic if the woman is unable to push the child out on her own and vacuum extractors or forceps are ineffective. The best option, in this case, might be a cesarean delivery.


Deliveries of human infants should be done with the head down. When the baby is facing down, bottom first, or sideways, it is said to be breech. A doctor may occasionally manually realign the infant. Cesarean delivery is an option on occasion.

Also Read

FAQs on Parturition

Question 1: During labor, does the placenta also come out?


The placenta typically departs the mother’s body between five to thirty minutes after the baby is born. It is referred to as the third stage of labour. Mild contractions will still occur after the baby is born. To deliver the placenta, the mother needs to push again. In order to aid in birth, the abdomen may occasionally be massaged, may have an oxytocin injection, and the umbilical cord may occasionally be gently tugged. In the event that a caesarean section is performed, the doctor will also remove the placenta.

Question 2: How to determine the date of the parturition?


Since the average pregnancy lasts 40 weeks (or 38 weeks from conception), one can usually calculate the due date by adding up to 40 weeks, or 280 days, since the first day of last menstruation (LMP). Alternatively, add seven days and take away three months from the most recent period. The first day of  LMP is typically used by healthcare professionals to estimate the due date. It’s not a set timeline, simply an approximate delivery date. Only 4% of newborns are born on time on average.

Question 3: How excruciating Is parturition?


Each person’s birth experience will be different. There are many different ways that women might experience pain. This implies that even compared to your mother or sister, you might experience pain extremely differently. It’s vital to keep in mind that labour pain is tolerable and that holistic pain management techniques like massage and visualisation are accessible in addition to medication.

Question 4: What is the difference between true and false labor pain?


The lower abdomen and back are also affected by the truly acute pain of labor. A fake pain is typically caused by indigestion and is eased by antacids or passing motion; these aches happen at regular intervals and keep getting stronger and more intense.

Question 5: What hormones cause the ovarian alterations that occur during the menstrual cycle?    


Three primary hormones—luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone are in charge of ovarian alterations throughout the menstrual cycle.

Question 6: What makes parturition significant?  


Mammalian reproduction culminates in parturition, which is crucial for the species’ survival. After a time of uterine quiescence during which the fetus can grow and develop, myometrial contractility changes, which leads to an effective expulsion of the fetus.

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Last Updated : 02 Nov, 2022
Like Article
Save Article
Similar Reads
Related Tutorials