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Northern Plains of India

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  • Last Updated : 27 Sep, 2022
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The Northern Plains lie toward the south of the Shivalik, isolated by the chain Frontal Fault. The southern limit may be a wavy unpredictable line on the northern fringe of ground India. On the jap aspect, the fields are lined by the Purvanchal slopes.

The northern fields are formed by the interaction of the 3 important stream frameworks, especially the Indus, the Ganga, and therefore the Brahmaputra River aboard their feeders. The Northern Plain is comprehensively separated into three areas as documented underneath: 

  1. The Ganga Plains 
  2. The Brahmaputra River plains
  3. The Punjab Plains

Ganga Plains

The Ganga plain stretches out between Ghaggar additionally, Teesta streams. It touches on the conditions of North India, Haryana, Delhi, and U.P. Bihar, somewhat. Jharkhand and the province to its East, particularly in the state lies the Brahmaputra River plain. The Ganga fields lie between the Yamuna construction in the west to the East Pakistan line in the East. The lower Ganga plain has been formed by the down distorting of a bit of the ground India between Rajmahal slopes and therefore the Meghalaya level and ensuing deposit by the Ganga and Brahmaputra River waterways.

Practically each one of the waterways, still modification its directions creating this region inclined to go into floods. The Kosi waterway is exceptionally notorious in this regard. it’s for a few times been called the ‘Distress of Bihar’. This is the most important unit of the good Plain of India extending from the city to the urban center (around three.75 100000 sq km). The ground waterways like Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Son, and then on connection the Ganga stream framework have to boot additional to the event of this plain.

There is some doab that lies across the Ganga plain; Central or Middle Doab ar Etah, Kasganj, and then on. Upper Doab is Uttarakhand – Dehradun, and Haridwar and in Uttar Pradesh.

Brahmaputra Plains

The Brahmaputra River fields are famed for their riverine islands (because of the low slope of the locale) and sand bars. This plain structures the jap piece of the northern plain and lies in state. The endless feeders of the Brahmaputra River waterway coming back from the north structure varied deposit fans. Its western limit is framed by the Indo-Bangladesh line still because of the limit of the lower Ganga Plain. Its jap limit is formed by Purvanchal slopes. Subsequently, the feeders alter in several channels transportation forth waterway wandering prompting the arrangement of bill and bull bow. The district is encircled by high mountains on all sides, besides on the west.

The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta: The most important delta on the earth. An oversized piece of the seaboard delta is roofed flowing backwoods referred to as Sundarbans. Sundarbans, the most important angio tree swamp on the earth gets its name from the Sundari tree that fills well in fenland.

Punjab Plains

Punjab in a very real sense implies “(The Land of) 5 glasses of water” alluding to the attendant streams: the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas. The standard rise of the plain is around 250 m on top of the mean ocean level. Toward the south of the Satluj stream, there’s the Malwa plain of Punjab. The region between the Ghaggar and therefore the Yamuna streams lies in Haryana and is often named as ‘Haryana Tract’. It goes regarded as water split between the Yamuna and therefore the Satluj streams.

The jap limit of Punjab Haryana plain is about apart by undersea Delhi-Aravalli edge. The northern piece of this plain [Shivalik hills] has been seriously disintegrated by varied streams referred to as Chos. This has prompted stupendous valuing [Arid Landforms]. The Punjab fields structure the western piece of the northern plain. within the east, the Delhi-Aravalli edge isolates it from the Ganga fields. Punjab fields were formed by the Indus and its feeders – the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, and therefore the Satluj. Punjab plain is isolated into various Doab, they are, Rech Na Doab – The Rech Na Doab (impressive a part of the Rech Na Doab is Majha lies between the Chenab and Ravi waterways.

Northern Plains Arrangement

Because of the elevate of the range within the Tethys ocean, the northern piece of the Indian ground got died down and formed a colossal bowl. That bowl was loaded up with dregs from the waterways that came from the mountains within the north and from the headland within the south. These broad deposit stores prompted the arrangement of the northern fields of India. Physiographic divisions of the northern plain, are

  1. The bhabar – The waterways, within the wake of diving from the mountains, store rocks in a very restricted belt of around eight to sixteen kilometers wide lying lined up with the slants of the Shivalik.
  2. The terai – All the streams vanish during this bhabar belt. The streams and waterways re-emerge and build a wet, damp and murky space.
  3. The bhangar – the most important piece of the northern plain is framed as had alluvium. It lies over the floodplains of the waterways and presents a terrace-like component.
  4. The khadar – The dirt within the bhangar space contains chalky stores and is understood as kankar. The additional current, younger stores of the floodplains.

Sample Question

Question 1: Justify any 2 characteristics of the northern plain?


  1. The typical dimension of those fields shifts somewhere within the vary of one hundred fifty and three hundred kilometers. As a rule, the dimension of the northern fields increments from east to west (90-100km in the state to around 500km in Punjab). The outrageous position of this tedious plain is its central trademark (200m – 291m).
  2. The specific profundity of alluvium has nevertheless not entirely set in stone. As indicated by current evaluations, the standard profundity of alluvium within the southern aspect of the plain fluctuates between 1300-1400m.

Question 2: What is the significance of the plain?


The broad utilization of the water system has created Punjab, Haryana, and the western piece of Uttar Pradesh the store of India (Prairie are called the storage facilities of the world).

The whole plain with the exception of the Thar Desert features a pack-up organization of streets and rail routes that has prompted scope manufacture and urbanization. This one-fourth of the place that’s famed for the state has 1/2 the Indian public.

Question 3: Justify regarding terai?


The Terai is additional in-depth within the jap items of the good Plains, notably within the Brahmaputra River depression thanks to weighty downfall. It is a 10-20 kilometer wide damp district within the south of Bhabar and runs lined up with it.

Once lined with thick timberlands, the bigger part of the Terai land (particularly in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand) has been recovered and reworked into husbandry land throughout some stretch of your time.

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