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Non-Metallic Minerals

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  • Last Updated : 25 Mar, 2022
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Our life completely revolves around minerals. It is a naturally occurring substance with genetic composition. One or more types of minerals compose a rock. Different minerals are formed by the combination of different factors; depending upon the physical and chemical compounds under which the mineral is formed.

Mode of Occurrence 

Minerals are commonly found in ore, which is a phrase that refers to the accumulation of any mineral combined with other elements. Minerals are found in the following modes:

  • Igneous and metamorphic rock minerals: Fissures, faults, and joints are all places where minerals may be discovered. Smaller occurrences are called veins, while bigger occurrences are called lodes. They are most typically formed when liquid, molten, or gaseous minerals are driven upwards through holes to the earth’s surface. As they ascend, they cool and solidify.   Tin, copper, zinc, and lead are among the metallic minerals collected from veins and lodes.
  • Minerals found in disintegrated rocks include:  Bauxite is created by the disintegration of surface rocks and the removal of soluble elements, leaving a residual bulk of weathered material containing ores.
  • Minerals found in alluvial sands: Certain minerals can be found in alluvial deposits in the sands of valley bottoms and hilltops. These deposits are known as “Placer deposits,” and they often contain minerals that do not corrode when exposed to water. Gold, Silver Tin, and so forth.
  • Minerals found in sedimentary rocks: A variety of minerals may be found in sedimentary rocks in the form of beds or layers. They were produced by the deposition, consolidation, and concentration of horizontal strata’s coal and some kinds of iron ore, which were concentrated over extended periods of time under extreme heat and pressure. Evaporation produces gypsum, salt, potassium salt, and sodium salt, especially in dry areas.
  • Ocean water is rich in minerals: Ocean water minerals are minerals present in ocean water, such as common salt, magnesium, and bromine, which are predominantly sourced from ocean water.

Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals

The concentration of minerals within the ore, the simplicity of extraction, and also the reserve’s proximity to the market all play a discreet role in determining the reserve’s economic viability. As a result, a choice should be created amongst a variety of possible prospects so as to satisfy demand, and at the moment, this mineral deposit or reserve becomes a mine.

Metallic Minerals 

Metallic minerals are minerals that include one or more metallic elements. Metallic minerals area units are found in uncommon, naturally made quantities referred to as mineral deposits. These deposits can contain a variety of metallic minerals containing valuable metals such as nickel (pentlandite), copper (chalcopyrite), zinc (sphalerite), lead (galena), and gold.

It can be subdivided into three types 

  • Precious metals-It’s a rich or uncommon worth of economic merchandise. For example- gold, silver, etc.
  • Ferrous metals -These metals are extracts from iron core. In these metals, iron and other metals are mixed together in the making of steel. For example- stainless steel, titanium, etc.
  • Non – Ferrous metals – These metals are not precious metals or do not even contain iron metal.  For example- Aluminium foil, copper, zinc, etc.

Non- Metallic Minerals

These minerals lack metals and have a crystalline structure, making them poor conductors of electricity. However, their molecules are closely packed inside the atomic structure, giving them the property of being semi-permeable. Coal, petroleum, limestone, and mica are examples of nonmetallic minerals. 

It is the primary raw material used in the cement industry and is required for the blast furnace to smelt iron ore. Non-metallic mineral reserves include quarries of stone and clay and sand pits; mineral deposits with chemical and fertilizer; salt deposits; quartz deposits, gypsum, natural gems gemstones halt and bitumen, peat, and other non-metallic resources other than coal and oil. One of the basic characteristics of nonmetallic minerals is that on melting they do not yield new products and the important non-metallic minerals are Mica and limestone.

Nonmetallic minerals are a class of chemical elements that, when melted, produce no new products. Sand, gravel, limestone, clay, and marble are examples of nonmetallic minerals. Metallic qualities like as excellent electric and thermic conductivity, brilliance, rigor, and malleability are lacking in these materials, although they are necessary for many businesses.

Nonmetallic minerals are well known for the manufacture of cement, ceramics, glass, and lime products. As a result, the spectrum of applications is fairly vast, encompassing anything from building materials to sanitary ware to tableware and ornamental items. The conversion of nonmetallic materials into these products is frequently an energy-intensive process that involves multiple phases such as heating, grinding, mixing, cutting, shaping, and honing. 


  • It is created from a series of plates or leaves.
  • It can be divided into thin sheets and thousands of layers may be piled into a mica sheet a few centimeters high.
  • It comes in a variety of colors, including clear, black, green, red yellow, and brown.
  • Due to its outstanding nonconductor strength, low power loss issue, insulating qualities, and resistance to high voltage, it’s one in every of the foremost vital minerals utilized in the electrical and electronic sectors.
  • Northern side of the Chota Nagpur plateau, Koderma Gaya Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand are important producers.
  • It conjointly manufacture in Ajmer, in Rajasthan . Nellore translucent substance belt of province .


  • Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of atomic number 20 carbonates, or atomic number 20 and metal carbonates.
  • It is the fundamental material for the cement trade and essential for smelting ore within the blast furnace.
  • Limestone refers to any calcareous sedimentary rock that is mostly made up of carbonates. Calcite and dolomite are the two most prominent components. Marbles and crystalline limestones are coarsely crystalline limestones that have been changed by dynamic or contact metamorphism.
  • Limestones come in a variety of forms, including ‘marl,’ ‘oolite’ (oolitic limestone), shelly limestone, algal limestone, coral limestone, and so on.
  • The limestone employed in bulk by industries, on the other hand, is a bedded type sedimentary limestone. Chalk, a white, highly fine-grained, generally soft and friable type of limestone, is another calcareous material utilised by industry.
  • Limestone is the most important ingredient in cement production.
  • Limestone is also used in the glass, ceramic, paper, textile, fertilizer, chemical, and sugar industries. 

Sample Questions

Question 1: Explain how our life revolves around minerals and energy resources?


 Our life completely revolves around minerals even if you are eating then also you intake the minerals from all four directions we are surrounded by minerals its actually play a very important or essential role in our life, same as energy resources we can work only when we are having energy it can help us directly or indirectly in both causes. In this way our life revolves around minerals and energy resources.

Question 2: What is the function of limestone? Give the names of two Indian states that are big limestone producers.


  • It’s a material that’s used in the cement business. It’s because it’s a cement’s raw material.
  •  It is required for smelting iron ore in a steel plant’s blast furnace.

Rajasthan (largest producer) is a state in India .Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka are also prominent limestone-producing states.

Question 3: What role does mineral and petroleum oil have in the Indian economy?


 The second most important source of energy in India is mineral and petroleum oil. It offers heat and lighting fuel, as well as lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a variety of manufacturing industries. 

Question 4: Justify the word ‘Mica’ in variety of characteristics?


  • It is a mineral created from a series of plates or leaves.
  • It can be divided into thin sheets and thousands of layers may be piled into a mica sheet a few centimeter’s high.
  •  It comes in a variety of colors, including clear, black, green, red yellow, and brown.
  • Due to its outstanding nonconductor strength, low power loss issue, insulating qualities, and resistance to high voltage, it’s one in every of the foremost vital minerals utilized in the electrical and electronic sectors.

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