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Nervous Tissue – Definition, Characteristics, Functions, Types

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  • Last Updated : 24 Feb, 2023
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Cells are the underlying and useful units of living organic entities. They complete fundamental functionalities of our body. A group of these particular cells works together to shape a tissue. Plants and creatures have various tissues. In creatures, there are four kinds of tissues in particular:

  1. Connective Tissue
  2. Epithelial Tissue
  3. Muscular tissue
  4. Nervous Tissue 

Nervous Tissue

The central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, contains nerve tissues. The cranial and spinal nerves are made up of neural tissues in the peripheral nervous system. Nervous tissues serve a variety of important activities, including:

  1. They regulate and coordinate the body’s metabolic functions.
  2. They assist in the transmission of information inside the body.
  3. They aid in the maintenance of equilibrium and the development of acute awareness of our surroundings.
  4. They also assist us in responding to outside stimuli.

These tissues are also important for an organism’s emotional regulation, memory, and thinking abilities.

What is a Nervous Tissue?

The nerve tissue is the fundamental tissue of our sensory system. It screens and controls the elements of the body. Sensory tissue comprises two cells: nerve cells or neurons and glial cells, which send nerve motivations and furthermore give supplements to neurons. The mind, Spinal Cord, and nerves are made out of sensory tissue, They’re designed to be activated in order to quickly convey stimuli from one part of the body to another.

Structure of Neuron

  • Axon: It is made of nerve cells or neurons, all of which comprise an axon. Axons are long stem-like projections arising out of the cell because neuron communication between the cells occurred, subsequently passing driving forces. 
  • Cell Body: The central part of the neuron is the cell body which contains the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles.
  • Dendrite: Dendrite is an exceptionally spread process, answerable for getting information from different neurons and neurotransmitters. Information from different neurons from different cells taken by dendrites attach to their cell body. 

Information in a neuron is unidirectional as it goes through neurons from dendrites, across the cell body down the axon.



Nervous Tissue Location 

The nerve tissue, also known as nervous tissue, is the main tissue component of two important parts of nervous tissue: the central nervous system (CNS), which is framed by the spinal cord and the cerebrum, and the peripheral nervous system’s expanding peripheral nerves, which regulate and coordinate the body’s organs and actions.

Nervous tissue may be found in peripheral nerves that travel throughout the body, as well as central nervous system components like the spinal cord and brain. The nervous tissue comprises nerve cells or neurons. Neurons are particular cells that respond to boosts by creating signals through the axons, which are stretched designs emerging from the cell body.

Characteristics of Nervous Tissue

  • Nervous tissue compensates for the CNS and PNS of the nervous system.
  • Contains two particular cells – neurons and glial cells
  • Dendrites, cell bodies, axons, and nerve terminals are all part of the nervous tissue.
  • Neurons discharge synthetic synapses which are liable for stimulating different neurons because of signals or neurotransmitters.
  • The presence of specialization at axonal terminals is called synapses.
  • Nerve cells have a long life, and can’t be separated and replaced (except memory cells)

Functions of Nervous Tissue

  • Neurons create and do nerve impulses. They produce electrical signs that are sent across distances, they do as such by emitting substance synapses.
  • Responds to stimuli.
  • Completes correspondence and coordination.
  • Gives electrical protection to nerve cells and eliminates debris waste.
  • Conveys messages from different neurons to the cell body.

Types of Nerves

Signals are started because of any stimulus. They start from the CNS (Central Nervous System) i.e., signals arrive from the brain in some cases they arise from the spinal cord. The signal starts from the CNS and reaches the external part of the body or external edges, like external organs, and limbs which do the appropriate reaction. Contraction or relaxation of the muscle is the response due to any stimulus. In cold conditions, we get goosebumps as an action due to cold conditions which is a stimulus.

When the nerves get an electrochemical signal (neurotransmitter) `or any impulse from the stimulus, neves start functioning by responding via getting a signal from the brain in response to the stimulus. On the basis of their function nerves are classified into different types of nerves:

Motor Nerves

Motor neurons, also known as motor nerves, are responsible for transmitting signals or driving forces as far as possible from the spinal cord and cerebrum to all of the body’s muscles. The impulse helps people to do normal activities like talking, walking, drinking water, squinting their eyes, sitting, sleeping, and so on. If any damage to the motor neurons then it can cause weakness of muscle or contraction of the muscles. The sciatic nerve is the nerve that runs from the lower back to the bump. The sciatic nerve empowers the full leg to move which the help of different nerves. A couple of these motor nerves work in the hamstring, feet, thighs, and feet.

Sensory Nerves

The sensory nerves or sensory neurons create impulses or signals in the opposite direction from another kind of nerve known as the motor neurons. The sense neurons assemble information like pressure, pain, temperature, and so forth from the sensors that are available in the muscles, skin, and other inward organs which thus divert it back to the cerebrum and spinal cord. These sensory nerves have the capability of conveying information connecting with movement (aside from the eyes, as they personally get it done). Numbness, pain, tingling sensation, and hypersensitivity are all symptoms of damage to the sensory nerves.

Autonomic Nerves

The heart muscles, as well as smooth muscles in the stomach and the interlining of glands and other organs, are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nerves govern involuntary functions i.e., not under control. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two functional groups:

  • The sympathetic nervous system is in charge of increasing heart rate and accompanying flight or fight responses.
  • The parasympathetic nervous system is in charge of excretion, digestion, and other metabolic processes.

Cranial Nerves

The cranial nerves come from the lower side of the brain in 12 pairs. From front to back, here are the cranial nerves mentioned:

Cranial Nerve


Smell, vision, facial and eye movement, tongue motions, and salivation are all controlled by the cranial nerves.

FAQs on Nervous Tissue

Question 1: What is the main function of the nerve tissue?


 Nervous tissue’s primary job is to receive inputs and transmit information to the brain and spinal cord. The nerves transmit these messages to the muscles.

Question 2: What is a nervous tissue composed of?


The nerve tissue is referred to as a neuron. It is divided into three sections:

  • Dendrites 
  • Axon 
  • Cell Body

Question 3: Describe sensory nerves.


Sensory nerves, also known as sensory neurons, are conscious of creating electrochemical signals or impulses active because of getting sensory input.

Question 4: Nervous tissue compensates for two major systems, what are they?


 The nerve tissue, also known as nervous tissue, is the primary tissue component of the nervous system’s two major pieces: 

  1. The central nervous system (CNS) 
  2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Question 5: What is a nervous tissue?


Nervous tissue also known as neurons is the basic unit of the nervous system, which helps an organism to communicate and coordinate.

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