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Nature of Enzyme Action

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All the carbon-based compounds that are seen in or produced by living organisms and are necessary to a biological cycle are called biomolecules. Examples of biomolecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Even molecules such as metabolites are considered biomolecules.


Most enzymes found today are proteins. There are even nucleic acids that display attributes of enzymes called ribozymes. Enzymes are like proteins, wherein, it has a primary structure as well as secondary and tertiary structures. Enzymes are biocatalysts or Protein impetuses.

  • They work with biochemical responses inside the collection of living organic entities
  • They bring down the enactment energy for a response
  • Their shapes decide their capabilities
  • They are profoundly particular in nature
  • For the most part, enzymes are proteins; but some nucleic acids act like enzymes, called Ribozymes
  • Enzymes are named after compounds/classes on which they act
  • Names end with ‘ase’
  • Example: The chemical ‘Maltase’ follows up on Maltose sugar to change it over completely to Glucose

Properties of Enzymes

  • Go about as a biocatalyst.
  • Continuously produce the same final results.
  • Individual enzymes work best at specific temp and pH.

Factors Affecting the Enzymes

  • Impact of Enzyme Concentration 
Impact of Enzyme Concentration


Firstly, as enzyme concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. After a specific point, enzyme concentration is more than required. So, no ES complex is formed. Therefore, the rate doesn’t increase. Expanding enzyme concentration will build the pace of response, as additional enzymes will be colliding into substrate particles.

  • Impact of Temperature 


Enzyme activity is more elevated at optimum temperature. As temperature increments, at first, the pace of reaction will build, due to expanded dynamic energy.

Notwithstanding, the impact of security breaking will turn out to be increasingly great and the pace of reaction will start to decline. Enzymes show a temperature ideal which is between 30 °C to 50 °C. At extremely low temperatures, the enzyme stays inactive. At extremely high temperature, enzyme gets damaged, as proteins are denatured by heat. For Example, keeping milk in the refrigerator stops curdling as enzyme activity is inactive or stopped.         

  • Impact of pH 
Impact of pH


Various enzymes have various optimum pH. Every enzyme works inside a seriously little pH range. There is a pH at which its movement is most prominent (the ideal pH). This is on the grounds that adjustments of pH can make and break intra-and intermolecular bonds, changing the state of the enzyme and, accordingly, its adequacy. Most enzymes have ideal pH in the scope of 4 to 9. For example, digestion-related enzymes work best in acidic ph, whereas intracellular enzymes work in neutral ph

  • Impact of Substrate 
Substrate Concentration


Behavior is as similar to enzyme concentration. Expanding substrate fixation builds the pace of reaction. This is on the grounds that more substrate particles will crash into enzyme atoms, so more items will be shaped.

FAQs on the Nature of Enzyme Action

Question 1: What are Biomolecules?


Biomolecules are chemical compounds or substances found in living creatures. For ex., nitrogen, Sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, hydrogen, etc. 

Question 2: What are some of the main purposes of biomolecules?


Biomolecules have many roles to play in the human body: 

  • Carbohydrates: Helps in sugar breakdown and glucose creation 
  • Lipids: energy supply to cells 
  • Proteins: Act as building blocks of life

Question 3: What are the important characteristics of enzymes?   


The four main characteristics of an enzyme are

  1. They possess extraordinary catalytic power, and a small quantity can easily catalyze a chemical reaction.
  2. They speed up reactions but stay unchanged during the entire reaction.
  3. Temperature, pH, and inhibitor can easily influence the efficiency and activity of enzymes.
  4. Enzymes tend to be very specific and usually catalyze only one kind of substrate.

Question 4: What are enzymes?


The proteins created by a living body that acts as a catalyst in metabolic activities are termed enzymes. The qualities of enzymes have the potential to affect the speed of biochemical reactions and are very important in the sustenance of life.

Question 5: What is the specificity of enzymes?


Specificity of enzyme: Enzymes are profoundly specific in nature, i.e., a specific enzyme can catalyse a specific reaction. For example,the  Enzyme sucrase can catalyse only hydrolysis of sucrose. Enzymes start and speed up the rate of biochemical reactions. The action of enzymes depends upon the acidity of the medium (pH specific).

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Last Updated : 21 Oct, 2022
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