National Population Policy
National Population Policy, also known as NPP,2000 is the central government’s second policy on population. The main and foremost objective of NPP is to address the unmet needs related to contraception, healthcare, and health personnel and also provide integrated service delivery like reproduction and childcare.
Features of NPP 2000
One important objective of NPP 2000 was a reduction of the Total Fertility Rate to replacement levels by 2010. The long-term objective was “achieving stable population by 2045, a consistent level for sustainable economic growth, social development, and environmental protection.”
- NPP 2000 is different than the other population regulation programs and the first-time population problem was seen as a combination of child survival, maternal health, women empowerment, and other contraception issues.
- The main vision of the NPP is to encourage voluntary and also informed choices and citizens’ agreeability to maximise benefits in the field of reproductive health.
- It aims to make school education almost free as well as compulsory up to the age of 14 years and also to reduce the rates of dropout of boys and girls.
- To decrease the Maternal Mortality Rate to under 100 per lakh live births, which should be achieved by 2010.
- Also to decrease the Infant Mortality Rate to under 30 per 100 live births in the country.
- It also aims to immunize all children against vaccine-preventable diseases and also encourages delayed marriages for girls.
- It aims to attain 100 percent registration of pregnancies, birth, deaths, and also marriages.
- To stop the spread of AIDS, boosting better coordination between the management of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
- It aims in bringing about some convergence of all social programs and to make family planning and welfare people-centric programs.
Aim of NPP 2000
The aims of the NPP 2000 can be divided into three categories of Temporary, midterm, and long-term goals:
- The use of contraceptives was listed as a temporary objective of NPP 2000. It included mostly hiring healthcare practitioners and also the creation of a framework of health protection.
- The midterm goal was that of Total Fertility Rate, which was replacement level, to be lowered to 2:1.
- Long term objective of NPP 2000 is to balance the population till 2045.
India’s NPP 2000 Evolution
- Bhore Committee: The Health Survey and Development board of trustees under Sir Joseph Bhore suggested ‘purposeful restriction of the family’ as an action to control the populace development. This board of trustees was set up in 1943 and presented its report in 1946.
- Radha Kamal Mukherjee Committee (1940): In 1940, the Indian National Congress selected a Committee headed by a social researcher Radha Kamal Mukherjee. A populace strategy board of trustees was laid out in 1952. Be that as it may, the approaches outlined in the mid-fifties were generally erratic and thus not fruitful.
- In 1956, a Central Family Planning Board was set up and its emphasis was on cleansing. In 1976, GOI declared the primary National Population Policy.
- In 1977, after the Emergency finished, the new government disposed of the utilization of power in family arranging, and the family arranging program was renamed the family government assistance program.
- The National Health Policy was taken on in 1983 which stressed ‘getting the little family standard through willful endeavors and moving towards the objective of populace adjustment’.
- A Committee on Population was selected in 1991 which presented its report in 1993 in which it suggested the formulation of a National Population Policy to take a drawn out comprehensive perspective on improvement, populace development,
- Likewise, an Expert Group headed by Dr. MS Swaminathan was set up to make the draft public populace strategy. The National Population Policy last came into force in 2000.
Five-Year Plans and Population Control in India
First Five-Year Plan
The first state-funded family planning program was introduced among developing nations in 1951. It also advocated the adoption of natural family planning methods. These measures were first for developing countries.
Second Five-Year Plan
The number of family planning clinics has increased. But their availability was limited to the urban areas because of this the results were not sufficient.
Third Five-Year Plan
The family planning department was established separately and the Copper-T method had been used.
Fifth Five-Year Plan
In 1976, national population policy was announced with features like the minimum age of marriage for girls and boys were raised, increasing literacy among females, use of media to promote family welfare programs and forced sterilization was allowed but later came to be prohibited.
Ninth Five-Year Plan
An expert panel was organized by the government in 1993, headed by MS Swaminathan as chairman. The family welfare program was re-designed as a family planning program in 1997.
Drawbacks of NPP 2000
- The approach seems anti-democratic for some as it restricts citizens’ freedom of choice and sexual liberties.
- Poor people have more children than the middle class or upper class, hence the balance is somewhat missing and feels lopsided at times by the reaching end.
- With two Child policy, if the two children are female; illiterate parents will try to kill the second girl child, which will evidently rise the aspects of female infanticide in the country.
- Population control tactics deal with specific issues, but exclusionary laws won’t help states and enhance the standard of living.
Need for New Population Policy in India
If the current patterns of population growth continue, it will succeed China as the world’s most populated nation by 2024. Over five times the population of India has expanded.
Population stabilization is very important for the promotion of sustainable development with a more fair distribution of resources and population. Because of this, there is an immediate need for a new population policy. The population of India should be more healthy, skilled, and also productive; for which India needs to analyze how to make the present population more productive. Economic planning for ensuring good jobs and agricultural productivity is essential for a country. A change in the mindset of people to focus on ensuring that the population is happy, and healthy is of utmost importance.
FAQs on National Population Policy
Question 1: What are the significant features of the National Population Policy?
- To reduce Infant Mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
- To reduce maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births.
- Achieve universal immunization of children.
Question 2: When did the national population policy come into effect?
April 1967 it came into effect.
Question 3: What is National Population Policy 2000?
The National Population Policy 2000 provided a framework for a holistic effort to address the unmet needs for contraception, healthcare and health personnel and basic reproductive and child healthcare.
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