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ML | Types of Learning – Part 2

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 25 Jul, 2022
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Unsupervised Learning: 

Or unsupervised machine learning analyzes and clusters unlabeled datasets using machine learning algorithms. These algorithms find hidden patterns and data without any human intervention, i.e., we don’t give output to our model. The training model has only input parameter values and discovers the groups or patterns on its own.  Data-set in Figure A is Mall data that contains information about its clients that subscribe to them. Once subscribed they are provided a membership card and the mall has complete information about the customer and his/her every purchase. Now using this data and unsupervised learning techniques, the mall can easily group clients based on the parameters we are feeding in. 

The input to the unsupervised learning models is as follows: 

  • Unstructured data: May contain noisy(meaningless) data, missing values, or unknown data
  • Unlabeled data: Data only contains a value for input parameters, there is no targeted value(output). It is easy to collect as compared to the labeled one in the Supervised approach.

Types of Unsupervised Learning are as follows: 

  • Clustering: Broadly this technique is applied to group data based on different patterns, such as similarities or differences, our machine model finds. These algorithms are used to process raw, unclassified data objects into groups. For example, in the above figure, we have not given output parameter values, so this technique will be used to group clients based on the input parameters provided by our data.
  • Association: This technique is a rule-based ML technique that finds out some very useful relations between parameters of a large data set. This technique is basically used for market basket analysis that helps to better understand the relationship between different products. For e.g. shopping stores use algorithms based on this technique to find out the relationship between the sale of one product w.r.t to another’s sales based on customer behavior. Like if a customer buys milk, then he may also buy bread, eggs, or butter. Once trained well, such models can be used to increase their sales by planning different offers.

Some algorithms: K-Means Clustering

  • DBSCAN – Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise
  • BIRCH – Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies
  • Hierarchical Clustering

Semi-supervised Learning:

As the name suggests, its working lies between Supervised and Unsupervised techniques. We use these techniques when we are dealing with data that is a little bit labeled and the rest large portion of it is unlabeled. We can use the unsupervised techniques to predict labels and then feed these labels to supervised techniques. This technique is mostly applicable in the case of image data sets where usually all images are not labeled. 

Reinforcement Learning: 

In this technique, the model keeps on increasing its performance using Reward Feedback to learn the behavior or pattern. These algorithms are specific to a particular problem e.g. Google Self Driving car, AlphaGo where a bot competes with humans and even itself to get better and better performers in Go Game. Each time we feed in data, they learn and add the data to their knowledge which is training data. So, the more it learns the better it gets trained and hence experienced. 

  • Agents observe input.
  • An agent performs an action by making some decisions.
  • After its performance, an agent receives a reward and accordingly reinforces and the model stores in state-action pair of information.
  • Temporal Difference (TD)
  • Q-Learning
  • Deep Adversarial Networks

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