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Microcontroller and its Types

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  • Last Updated : 23 Feb, 2022

A microcontroller is a self-contained desktop that can be utilized in an embedded system. A few microcontrollers may run at clock rate rates and use four-bit expressions. Because many of the devices they control are battery-operated, microcontrollers must often be low-power. Microcontrollers are found in a wide range of products, including consumer electronics, automobile engines, computer peripherals, and test and measurement equipment. These are also well-suited to long-term battery usage. The vast majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other devices.

Working of Microcontroller:

The microcontroller chip is a high-speed device, yet it is slow when compared to a computer. As a result, each command will be executed quickly within the microcontroller. The quartz oscillator is enabled and through control logic register once the supply is powered on. Parasite capacitors will be recharged for a few seconds while the early preparation is taking place. Once the voltage level reaches its maximum value and the oscillator’s frequency stabilizes, the operation of writing bits through special function registers becomes stable. Everything is controlled by the oscillator’s CLK, and the whole electronics will begin to function. All of this happens in a matter of nanoseconds.

A microcontroller’s major role is that it can be thought of as a self-contained system with a processor memory. Its peripherals can be used in the same way that an 8051 microcontroller can. The bulk of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other types of machinery such as telephones, appliances, vehicles, and computer system peripherals.

Types of Microcontroller:

  • CPU: The microcontroller is referred to as a CPU device since it is utilized to carry and decode data before effectively completing the assigned duty. All microcontroller components are connected to a specific system utilizing a central processing unit. The CPU can decode instructions retrieved from the programmable memory.
  • Memory: The memory chip of a microcontroller functions similarly to a microprocessor in that it stores all of the data as well as programming. Microcontrollers have a limited quantity of RAM/ROM/flash memory for storing program source code.
  • Input and Output ports: In general, these ports are used to interface or otherwise drive various appliances like LEDs, LCDs, printers, and so on.
  • Serial Ports: Serial ports are used to offer serial interfaces between the microcontroller and a range of additional peripherals, such as the parallel port.
  • Timers: Timers and counters are included in a microcontroller. In a microcontroller, they are used to manage all timing and counting activities. The fundamental function of a counter is to count external pulses, whereas timers conduct clock tasks, pulse production, modulations, frequency measurement, and oscillations, among other things.
  • ADC (Analog to Digital Converter): ADC is an acronym for Automated Data Collection (Analog to Digital Converter). Analog to digital converter is abbreviated as ADC. The primary function of an ADC is to convert analog signals to digital signals. The required input signals for ADC are analog, and the resulting digital signal is employed in a variety of digital applications such as measurement equipment.
  • Control Interpretation: This controller is used to provide delayed control to a running application, with internal or external interpretation.
  • Block with Special Functions: A specific function block is included in some special microcontrollers built for particular devices such as robots and space systems. This block has additional ports for doing specific tasks.

Microcontroller Applications :

In contrast to microprocessors, which are used in personal computers and other devices, microcontrollers are mostly employed in embedded devices. These are mostly utilized in a variety of products such as implantable medical devices, machine tools, automotive engine control systems, office equipment, remote-controlled appliances, and so on. The following are some of the most common uses for microcontrollers.

For more about microcontrollers, please refer Advantages and Disadvantages of the microcontroller article.

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