# Maximum sum subsequence made up of at most K distant elements including the first and last array elements

Given an array **arr[]** consisting of **N** integers and an integer **K**, the task is to print the maximum sum possible in a subsequence satisfying the following conditions:

- The elements
**arr[N – 1]**and**arr[0]**are included in the subsequence. - Adjacent elements in the subsequence can be at a distance of at most
**K**indices.

**Examples:**

Input:arr[] = {10, -5, -2, 4, 0, 3}, K = 3Output:17Explanation:

One of possible way is as follows:

Include arr[0] into the subsequence. Sum = 10.

Include arr[3] in the subsequence. Therefore, sum = 10 + 4 = 14.

Include arr[5] in the subsequence. Therefore, total sum = 14 + 3 = 17.

Therefore, the maximum sum possible is 17.

Input:arr[] = {1, -5, -20, 4, -1, 3, -6, -3}, K = 2Output:0

**Naive Approach:** The simplest approach is to find all subsequences possible from **arr[]** with at most **K** difference between indices of adjacent elements, starting from index** 0** and ending at index **(N – 1)**. Calculate sum of all such subsequences. Finally, print the maximum of all the sums obtained. **Time Complexity:** O(N*2^{N})**Auxiliary Space:** O(N)

**Efficient Approach:** The above approach can be optimized by using a Greedy Algorithm and deque. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

- Initialize an array, say
**dp[]**, to store the maximum value obtained till the current index. - Initialize a deque of pairs, say
**Q**, to store the pair**{dp[i], i}**. - Assign the value of
**arr[0]**to**dp[0]**and push the pair**{dp[0], 0}**into the deque. - Traverse the given array
**arr[]**using the variable**i**and perform the following steps:- Increment
**dp[i]**by the sum of**arr[i]**and maximum value in the deque, i.e.**dp[i] = arr[i] + Q[0][0]**. - Traverse over the deque
**Q**from the end and pop the last element if**Q[-1][0]**is less than**dp[i]**. - Append the pair
**{dp[i], i}**in the deque. - Check if the index of the first element of the deque
**q**is equal to**(i – K)**or not and then, pop the first element from the deque**Q**.

- Increment
- After completing the above steps, print the value stored at the last index of
**dp[]**, i.e.**dp[N – 1]**as the result.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

`// CPP program for the above approach` `#include<bits/stdc++.h>` `using` `namespace` `std;` `// Function to find maximum sum` `// of a subsequence satisfying` `// the given conditions` `int` `maxResult(` `int` `arr[], ` `int` `k, ` `int` `n){` ` ` `// Stores the maximum sum` ` ` `int` `dp[n] = {0};` ` ` `// Starting index of` ` ` `// the subsequence` ` ` `dp[0] = arr[0];` ` ` `// Stores the pair of maximum value` ` ` `// and the index of that value` ` ` `deque<pair<` `int` `,` `int` `>> q;` ` ` `q.push_back({arr[0], 0});` ` ` `// Traverse the array` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 1; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Increment the first value` ` ` `// of deque by arr[i] and` ` ` `// store it in dp[i]` ` ` `dp[i] = arr[i] + q.front().first;` ` ` `// Delete all the values which` ` ` `// are less than dp[i] in deque` ` ` `while` `(q.size() > 0 and q.back().first < dp[i])` ` ` `q.pop_back();` ` ` `// Append the current pair of` ` ` `// value and index in deque` ` ` `q.push_back({dp[i], i});` ` ` `// If first value of the` ` ` `// queue is at a distance > K` ` ` `if` `(i - k == q.front().second)` ` ` `q.pop_front();` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Return the value at the last index` ` ` `return` `dp[n - 1];` `}` `// Driver Code` `int` `main()` `{` ` ` `int` `arr[] = {10, -5, -2, 4, 0, 3};` ` ` `int` `K = 3;` ` ` `int` `n = ` `sizeof` `(arr)/` `sizeof` `(arr[0]);` ` ` `cout<<maxResult(arr, K,n);` `}` `// This code is contributed by ipg2016107.` |

## Java

`// Java program for the above approach` `import` `java.io.*;` `import` `java.lang.*;` `import` `java.util.*;` `public` `class` `GFG {` ` ` ` ` `// Pair class Store (x,y) Pair` ` ` `static` `class` `Pair {` ` ` `int` `x, y;` ` ` `Pair(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) {` ` ` `this` `.x = x;` ` ` `this` `.y = y;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Function to find maximum sum` ` ` `// of a subsequence satisfying` ` ` `// the given conditions` ` ` `private` `static` `int` `maxResult(` `int` `[] arr, ` `int` `k, ` `int` `n) {` ` ` ` ` `// Stores the maximum sum` ` ` `int` `dp[] = ` `new` `int` `[n];` ` ` ` ` `// Starting index of` ` ` `// the subsequence` ` ` `dp[` `0` `] = arr[` `0` `];` ` ` ` ` `// Stores the pair of maximum value` ` ` `// and the index of that value` ` ` `Deque<Pair> q = ` `new` `LinkedList<Pair>();` ` ` `q.add(` `new` `Pair(arr[` `0` `], ` `0` `));` ` ` ` ` `// Traverse the array` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = ` `1` `; i < n; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` ` ` `// Increment the first value` ` ` `// of deque by arr[i] and` ` ` `// store it in dp[i]` ` ` `dp[i] = arr[i] + q.peekFirst().x;` ` ` ` ` `// Delete all the values which` ` ` `// are less than dp[i] in deque` ` ` `while` `(q.size() > ` `0` `&& q.peekLast().x < dp[i])` ` ` `q.pollLast();` ` ` ` ` `// Append the current pair of` ` ` `// value and index in deque` ` ` `q.add(` `new` `Pair(dp[i], i));` ` ` ` ` `// If first value of the` ` ` `// queue is at a distance > K` ` ` `if` `(i - k == q.peekFirst().y)` ` ` `q.pollFirst();` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Return the value at the last index` ` ` `return` `dp[n - ` `1` `];` ` ` ` ` `}` ` ` ` ` `// Driver Code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)` ` ` `{` ` ` `int` `arr[] = {` `10` `, -` `5` `, -` `2` `, ` `4` `, ` `0` `, ` `3` `};` ` ` `int` `K = ` `3` `;` ` ` `int` `n = arr.length;` ` ` `System.out.println(maxResult(arr, K,n));` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` `// This code is contributed by Dheeraj Bhagchandani.` |

## Python3

`# Python program for the above approach` `from` `collections ` `import` `deque` `# Function to find maximum sum` `# of a subsequence satisfying` `# the given conditions` `def` `maxResult(arr, k):` ` ` `# Stores the maximum sum` ` ` `dp ` `=` `[` `0` `]` `*` `len` `(arr)` ` ` `# Starting index of` ` ` `# the subsequence` ` ` `dp[` `0` `] ` `=` `arr[` `0` `]` ` ` `# Stores the pair of maximum value` ` ` `# and the index of that value` ` ` `q ` `=` `deque([(arr[` `0` `], ` `0` `)])` ` ` `# Traverse the array` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `1` `, ` `len` `(arr)):` ` ` ` ` `# Increment the first value` ` ` `# of deque by arr[i] and` ` ` `# store it in dp[i]` ` ` `dp[i] ` `=` `arr[i] ` `+` `q[` `0` `][` `0` `]` ` ` `# Delete all the values which` ` ` `# are less than dp[i] in deque` ` ` `while` `q ` `and` `q[` `-` `1` `][` `0` `] < dp[i]:` ` ` `q.pop()` ` ` `# Append the current pair of` ` ` `# value and index in deque` ` ` `q.append((dp[i], i))` ` ` ` ` `# If first value of the` ` ` `# queue is at a distance > K` ` ` `if` `i ` `-` `k ` `=` `=` `q[` `0` `][` `1` `]:` ` ` `q.popleft()` ` ` `# Return the value at the last index` ` ` `return` `dp[` `-` `1` `]` `# Driver Code` `arr ` `=` `[` `10` `, ` `-` `5` `, ` `-` `2` `, ` `4` `, ` `0` `, ` `3` `]` `K ` `=` `3` `print` `(maxResult(arr, K))` |

## C#

`// C# program to implement above approach` `using` `System;` `using` `System.Collections;` `using` `System.Collections.Generic;` `using` `System.Runtime.InteropServices;` `class` `GFG` `{` ` ` `class` `Pair {` ` ` `public` `int` `x, y;` ` ` `public` `Pair(` `int` `x, ` `int` `y) {` ` ` `this` `.x = x;` ` ` `this` `.y = y;` ` ` `}` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Function to find maximum sum` ` ` `// of a subsequence satisfying` ` ` `// the given conditions` ` ` `static` `int` `maxResult(` `int` `[] arr, ` `int` `k, ` `int` `n) {` ` ` `// Stores the maximum sum` ` ` `int` `[] dp = ` `new` `int` `[n];` ` ` `// Starting index of` ` ` `// the subsequence` ` ` `dp[0] = arr[0];` ` ` `// Stores the pair of maximum value` ` ` `// and the index of that value` ` ` `List<Pair> q = ` `new` `List<Pair>();` ` ` `// Pointers to first and last element of Deque` ` ` `int` `l = 0, r= -1;` ` ` `q.Add(` `new` `Pair(arr[0], 0));` ` ` `r++;` ` ` `// Traverse the array` ` ` `for` `(` `int` `i = 1 ; i < n ; i++)` ` ` `{` ` ` `// Increment the first value` ` ` `// of deque by arr[i] and` ` ` `// store it in dp[i]` ` ` `dp[i] = arr[i] + q[l].x;` ` ` `// Delete all the values which` ` ` `// are less than dp[i] in deque` ` ` `while` `(l<=r && q[r].x < dp[i])` ` ` `r--;` ` ` `// Append the current pair of` ` ` `// value and index in deque` ` ` `if` `(r == q.Count - 1){` ` ` `q.Add(` `new` `Pair(dp[i], i));` ` ` `}` `else` `{` ` ` `q[r+1] = ` `new` `Pair(dp[i], i);` ` ` `}` ` ` `r++;` ` ` `// If first value of the` ` ` `// queue is at a distance > K` ` ` `if` `(i - k == q[l].y)` ` ` `l++;` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Return the value at the last index` ` ` `return` `dp[n - 1];` ` ` `}` ` ` `// Driver Code` ` ` `public` `static` `void` `Main(` `string` `[] args){` ` ` `int` `[] arr = ` `new` `int` `[]{10, -5, -2, 4, 0, 3};` ` ` `int` `K = 3;` ` ` `int` `n = arr.Length;` ` ` `Console.Write(maxResult(arr, K,n));` ` ` `}` `}` `// This code is contributed by subhamgoyal2014.` |

**Output:**

17

**Time Complexity:** O(N)**Auxiliary Space:** O(N)