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Major Landforms of the Earth

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  • Last Updated : 25 May, 2022
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The outer portion of the earth is formed by the covering and the upper mantle, which is known as the Lithosphere. It has a few plates called lithospheric plates. Because of the circular development of liquid magma within the earth, the plates move by a few millimeters on a regular basis. When lithospheric plates move, the world’s surface changes, resulting in different landforms. Lithospheric plates are sporadic and rigid.


There are numerous physical features on the surface of the Earth known as landforms. On Earth, there are at least three major kinds of landforms: mountains, plateaus, and plains. In addition to height, enduring, sinking, water, and soil degradation, the Earth’s surface is continually shaped by natural cycles. It isn’t something that just happens. It will take thousands or even hundreds of years for these changes to take effect. Different kinds of landforms will emerge from these cycles. Topographical cycles are responsible for bringing about landforms. Why don’t we study the cycles that shape landforms?

  1. Outer Process: As outside variables like rain or wind impact the climatic system, they are regarded as outer interactions. Two of these factors are disintegration and witness. Disintegration and affidavit are regular cycles that alter the Earth’s outer layer. Simply described,  disintegration is a process in which silt is maintained or deposited in a new position. Dregs are also the only materials found on the Earth’s surface, such as dirt and shakes.
  2. Inward Process: Inward cycles are phenomena that occur under the Earth’s outer layer, such as beneath the surface, as the name indicates. You may also want to think about volcanoes and plate tectonics. The immense heat in the Earth’s core causes the liquid stone in the mantle layer to move, resulting in these phenomena. As a result, on a superficial level, uneven development. These layers can either uplift or depress the viewer.

Major Landforms on earth

Mountains, plateaus, and plains are classified according to their elevation and slope. Let’s look at each one independently.


A mountain is any piece of terrain that is taller and more severe than a slope. There are many types of slopes on the land. Mountains can reach heights of more than 2000 meters. The temperature drops as you climb higher, just as it does with other typical heights, such as air. As a result, life at home becomes more brutal. This is also why there are fewer people in the rocky areas.

High mountains are also anticipated to freeze due to the colder temperatures. Some of them, to be honest, have chilly masses. A glacial mass is a continuous stream of frozen ice. Similarly, the steep slopes make it impossible to farm in a suitable area because of their dangerous slopes. With the ocean base as a scale, we can calculate how high the surface is and determine that there are mountains beneath the water. In Hawaii, we have the summit of Mauna Kea, for example. According to the World Atlas, it stands taller than Mount Everest. Reach is the term used for a mountain range. These reaches function as reservoirs for water. Mountains are the source of many streams. These streams are really fed by the frozen masses of this landform. Because mountains tend to be undeveloped, plants and animals there are often in danger of extinction. They also keep a wide variety of plants at bay. There are three categories of mountains. Please share your experiences with us.

  • Overlap Mountains: Overlay mountains arise when two structural plates contact and their edges ‘crease’ as a result of the immense push force between them. Researchers categorize the overlap mountains into ‘youthful overlay’ and ‘old crease’ mountains based on their age. Between 10 and 25 million years old are the more youthful overlays. Think about Nepal’s Himalayas, the Alps in Europe, and South America’s Andes. This ancient wrinkled type of rock has been around for more than 200 million years. Among them are the Aravalli Mountains in India and the Ural Mountains in Russia. 
  • Block Mountains: Large sections of rock fragment and dislodge upward to create block mountains. This huge area of rock can span several kilometers due to structural and confined loads within the Earth’s hull. Grabens refer to the pulled-down blocks, whereas Horsts are the raised squares. Their appearance is similar to a piano key. In Europe, square mountains are found in the Rhine Valley and the Vosges Mountains.
  • Volcanic Mountains: Magna ascension structures from the earth’s mantle to the crust Mountains formed by volcanoes Models include Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Fuji.


The levels are elevated flatlands. Overall, it is level land that towers over the surrounding region. They may also have steep slants on at least one side. Furthermore, their level varies from two or three hundred meters to a few thousand meters depending on the level.

India’s most recognizable level is the Deccan Plateau. Magma is the primary driving force behind their generation, so they are volcanic. As a continuation of the Deccan Plateau, India’s Chotanagpur level can be reached. It benefits minerals such as iron metal, manganese, and coal. The African and Tibetan levels are included in many models. African countries are well known for their mining of precious stones and gold. In addition, the Tibetan level is the highest on the earth. The cascade is triggered by level areas. Hundru, for example, is in the Chotanagpur level, while Jog is in Karnataka. Furthermore, these landforms serve as additional habitats for the travel industry as well as beautiful exercises.


Fields are the best places to grow. They are mostly level land that stretches off into the distance. These pieces of land are appropriate for human settlement as well as agricultural and poultry enterprises. Waterways and their feeders demolish mountains as they run down them, creating structure fields. They collect silt in valleys and along with their courses. These have structural fields in them. India’s Indo-Gangetic fields are the country’s most heavily inhabited areas. As should be evident, there is a life where there is water.

Sample Questions

Question 1: How are mountains valuable to man?


Mountains are extremely important to humanity. Some of these values are shown below.

  • Snow covers and glacier masses, such as those seen in the Himalayas, are the source of innumerable waterways, falls, streams, and other features. The age of hydro-power, the water system, and so on all use water from the mountain.
  • A diverse range of vegetation and animals are homed in mountains. Mountain woodlands provide us with lumber, feed, and various plant products such as gum, plastic, and so on.
  • Mountains are used as travel destinations and holiday spots. Many visitors come to the mountains to travel and participate in activities like as skiing, river rafting, hang gliding, and paragliding.

Question 2: How are fields framed?


While flowing down the inclines of the mountains, streams and their feeders cause the disintegration of rocks and soil. These materials are carried onward and saved by the streams as they pass through the valleys. The fields are framed by an affidavit of those materials for a considerable period of time.

Question 3: For what reason are the stream fields thickly populated?


The following are some theories for densely inhabited fields:

  • Because the land in the fields is the ripest, horticulture is a viable option.
  • Furthermore, fields with no rising ground make transportation and structure construction easier. Most watercourse fields on the earth are densely populated in this fashion.

Question 4: Why are mountains meagerly populated?


The following are the reasons why mountains are sparsely populated:

  • Mountains, on the whole, have harsh climatic conditions.
  • Mountain terrain isn’t particularly fertile or abundant in rocks and stone. As a result, agribusiness is extremely tough.
  • In the mountains, transportation is even more difficult.
  • On the hills, finding level terrain on which to build buildings is difficult.

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