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Magnesium Oxide Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 03 Aug, 2022
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Magnesium Oxide Formula is one of the most common chemical formulas that we came across in our daily life. Magnesium Oxide compound that contains magnesium a chemical element with the symbol Mg. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. It has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 form. It is a shiny gray solid. Sir Humphrey Davy discover magnesium in 1808. Most magnesium produced in the world comes from some natural minerals such as dolomite and magnesite which are carbonates of magnesium.

The symbol of the chemical element Oxygen is O. Its atomic number is 8 and its electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas essential for living organisms. It is one of the most widely found elements in the Earth’s crust. It is a reactive element that is found in water, in most rocks, and in minerals. The oxygen we inhale helps to break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water.

Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium Oxide is an inorganic salt of magnesium with the chemical formula MgO. Magnesium is a hygroscopic solid, which is white in color. It is a mineral that occurs naturally as Periclase. Magnesium Oxide is also called Magnesia. It consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2- ions held together by double ionic bonds.

Structure Of Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium Oxide is an ionic compound. In this magnesium is metal and oxygen is a nonmetal. Metal and nonmetal bond together to form an ionic compound. Magnesium is in group 2 and it has 2 valance electrons. Oxygen in group 16 has 6 valance electrons. Metal transforms electrons to nonmetal magnesium lost 2 electrons  Mg2+  oxygen got 2 electrons O2- then this negative and positive ions attracted together to form an ionic bond.

magnesium oxide

Magnesium Oxide

Preparation Of Magnesium Oxide

  •  Silicon dioxide reacts with magnesium to produce Magnesium Oxide.

2 Mg + SiO2 —> 2 MgO +Si

  • Magnesium reacts with oxygen to produce Magnesium Oxide.

O2 + 2 Mg ——-> 2 MgO

  • Magnesium reacts with Iron Oxide to form iron and magnesium oxide

3 Mg + Fe2O3 ——> 2 Fe + 3 MgO

  • Magnesium reacts with Chromium Oxide to form chromium and Magnesium Oxide 

3 Mg + Cr2O3 —–> 3 MgO + 2 Cr

Physical Properties Of Magnesium Oxide

  • Molecular mass of  Magnesium Oxide is 40.3 g/mol
  • Its density is 3.6 g/cm3
  • Its melting point is 2852ο
  • Its boiling point is 3600οC

Chemical Properties Of Magnesium Oxide

  • The chemical formula of  Magnesium Oxide is MgO
  • Magnesium Oxide reacts with sulfuric acid to form magnesium sulfate and water

H2SO4 + MgO —> H2O + MgSO4

  • Nitric acid reacts with Magnesium Oxide to produce Magnesium Nitrate

2 HNO + MgO —-> H2O + Mg(NO3)2

  • Magnesium Oxide reacts with silicon dioxide to form magnesium metasilicate

MgO+SiO2  ——-> MgSiO3

  • Aluminum reacts with Magnesium Oxide to produce magnesium and aluminum oxide

2 Al + 3 MgO  —–> 3 Mg + Al2O3

Uses Of Magnesium Oxide

  • Magnesium Oxide is used in wastewater treatment plants.
  • It is used in the treatment of drinking water. 
  • It is used as an anticaking agent.
  • It is used in air emissions treatment.
  • It is used in optical materials.
  • It is used for the relief of heartburn and dyspepsia.
  • It is used as a food additive.
  • It is used as an insulator.

FAQs on Magnesium Oxide

Question 1: Write a reaction when Magnesium is allowed to react with Copper Sulfate.


When magnesium is placed in copper sulfate solution a redox reaction occurs. Magnesium atoms have given electrons to copper ions and you end up with magnesium ions and copper atoms. 

Mg + CuSO4 ——-> Cu + MgSO4

Question 2: Is Magnesium Oxide a salt?


Yes, Magnesium Oxide is a salt that combines magnesium and oxygen. It is one of many magnesium salts used clinically. In its natural forms it is a white substance and may be sold in powder or capsule form. 

Question 3: What are the uses of magnesium?


The symbol of magnesium is Mg. It is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy .it may support healthy blood sugar levels. It is used by scientists in medicine. It is used to treat skin-related problems. It is used in products that benefit from being lightweight such as car seats, luggage, laptops, and power tools. 

Question 4: What happens when magnesium burns in presence of oxygen?


Magnesium burns in the air giving an intense white light and heat to form basic oxide called magnesium oxide. Magnesium reacts with oxygen to form magnesium oxide        

2Mg + O2——> 2 MgO

Question 5: What are the uses of oxygen?


O is the chemical symbol of the element Oxygen. It has many practical uses. It is used by living beings in the respiration process and is also used for burning fuels. It is commonly used in the manufacturing process of steel. Various industry use Oxygen is used in blow torches for cutting, welding, and melting metals.

Question 6: Is Magnesium Oxide an electrolyte?


Yes, magnesium oxide is a strong electrolyte. Strong electrolytes completely dissolves into their ions when they dissolve in water.

Question 7: Write a chemical reaction when magnesium oxide is heated in presence of carbon dioxide.


The magnesium continues to burn in the carbon dioxide to form some black specks of carbon and white magnesium oxide

CO2 + MgO  ——> MgCO3

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