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Lithium Chloride Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

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  • Last Updated : 11 May, 2022
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Lithium gets its name from “lithos”. It is the Greek word used for stone. Lithium (Li), alkali metal machine of the periodic table (Group1) of a chemical element. Lithium is a type of metal that is mainly used in grains and vegetables for diet purposes. Its various forms are used in supplements. Lithium is the lightest metal of the solid element. The boiling point and oxidation state of lithium are 1,342°C and +1. It is an s-block element. Lithium is used in rechargeable batteries for mobile phones, laptops, digital cameras, and electric vehicles. Chloride is a negatively charged ionic form of Chlorine. It is found very rich in nature. It is very useful for all living things for surviving. The molecular mass is 35.453 g/mol. Chloride can also be found when we dissolve chloride salt in an aqueous solution like sodium chloride.

Lithium chloride

It appears as colorless crystals or powder. It is a solid which absorbs water to form a hydrate, LiCl.H2O. it is a very effective antimanic drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder. It is well soluble in water, alcohol, acetone, and amyl alcohol. and lithium chloride is also used as a flame colorant to produce dark red flames.

Lithium chloride formula

Lithium chloride also known as LiCl is presented in this article. when the positively charged lithium-ion (Li+) reacts with the negatively charged chloride ion (Cl) then the obtained formula is known as lithium chloride (LiCl). The molecule is formed by one lithium cation Li+ and one chlorine anion Cl. The molar mass of lithium chloride is 42.39 g/mol. The chemical and molecular formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.

Structure of Lithium Chloride

Lithium chloride is an ionic compound in which lithium is a metal compound and chloride is a nonmetal compound. where electrons are transferred from metal ion to nonmetal ion. In this type of structure, one electron is transferred by lithium and it becomes electropositive chlorine gain one electron then it becomes electronegative.


Preparation of Lithium Chloride

  • Lithium chloride can be prepared by reacting lithium carbonate with Hydrochloric acid. It is an exothermic reaction of lithium with either chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas.

Li2CO3 + HCl ⇢  LiCl + CO2 + H2O

  • When it is heated along with hydrogen chloride then LiCl is produced.

Physical Properties of Lithium Chloride 

  • It is an odorless white crystalline solid.
  • The density of Licl is 2.068 g/cm3.
  • Well soluble in water, alcohol, and ester nitrobenzene.
  • It has a boiling point of 1,382°C.
  • It has a melting point of 605 – 614°C.

Chemical Properties of Lithium Chloride

  • When lithium chloride reacts with H2SO4 it gives lithium sulfate and hydrogen chloride.

2LiCl + H2SO4 → 2 HCl + Li2SO4

  • When Lithium chloride reacts with a base like NaOH it gives lithium hydroxide and sodium chloride.

LiCl + NaOH → LiOH + NaCl

Uses of Lithium chloride 

  • It is used as an electrolyte in voltaic cells.
  • It is used to produce a dark red flame.
  • It is used in supplements.
  • It is also used in organic synthesis.
  • It is used to precipitate RNA.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What are the major uses of lithium chloride?


Lithium chloride is mainly used for the production of lithium metal with the help of electrolysis of LiCl melt at high temperatures. It is also used in the automobile industry.

Question 2: Is lithium chloride basic or acid?


It does not have any acidic or basic properties. The chloride anion is an extremely weak conjugate base of a monoprotic strong acid (HCL), therefore, it has no effect on pH. 

Question 3: What type of compound is lithium chloride?


Lithium chloride is an inorganic chloride and lithium salt. It is a metal chloride salt with a lithium salt (Li+) counterion. Lithium chloride has a role as an antimanic drug and geroprotector.

Question 4: Why is lithium chloride most soluble? 


Lithium chloride is most soluble in water because the hydration energy is higher than the lattice energy. that’s why LiCl is water-soluble. Due to higher polarization, LiCl has some covalent character hence it is soluble in nonpolar solvents such as acetone. 

Question 5: Is lithium chloride conduct electricity?


When a salt is dissolved in water, the charged ions conduct electricity. But in the case of lithium chloride, it has no mobile ions which carry the charge. due to which all the particles are locked in a tight structure. so lithium chloride can’t conduct electricity.

Question 6: Is lithium chloride solid or gas?


Lithium chloride is an odorless white crystalline solid. It makes a red bright color in a flame. It also dissolves more easily in water than other alkali metal chlorides. So we can say that the lithium chloride is solid in nature. 

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