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list back() function in C++ STL

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  • Last Updated : 24 Jun, 2022
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The list::back() function in C++ STL returns a direct reference to the last element in the list container. This function is different from the list::end() function as the end() function returns only the iterator to the last element. Syntax: 


Parameters: This function does not accepts any parameter. Return Value: This function returns a direct reference to the last element in the list container demo_list. Exception: There is as no such exception in this function but calling this function on an empty list container creates an undefined behavior in C++. Below program illustrates the list::back() function. 


// CPP program to illustrate the
// list::assign() function
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
int main()
    // Initialization of list
    list<int> demo_list;
    // Adding elements to the list
    // prints the last element of demo_list
    cout << demo_list.back();
    return 0;



Time Complexity: O(1)

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

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