Morphology is the branch of biological science that deals with the study of various external features, relative positions, and forms of various organs of various organisms. It is divided into two categories:
- Internal morphology: It deals with the internal forms of organisms. This type of morphology is further divided into anatomy and histology.
- Anatomy: This type of internal morphology studies the organisms after their dissection and opening of various parts of their organs.
- Histology: These studies the tissues, their structure, and their composition.
- External morphology: It is the study of organisms’ external structures, such as their shape, color, size, relative position, and structure.
Semi-Technical Description of Flower
- The plant’s habit, vegetative characteristics—the roots, stem, and leaves—as well as its floral characteristics—the inflorescence and flower parts.
- Several symbols are used to symbolize the floral formula. Bracteate is referred to in the floral formula as Br. The letters K, C, P, A, and G stand for the calyx, corolla, perianth, androecium, and gynoecium respectively.
- The figure is enclosed in a bracket to represent fusion, and a line is made over through the symbols for the floral parts to represent adhesion.
About 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots make up the Liliaceae family. They are also known as the “lily family” There are 4000 different species and 250 genera of plants in the Liliaceae family. In contrast, there are 169 species in India. They serve as the foundational monocot stock from which the other monocot family has descended and are regarded as typical monocot families. It has some similarities to certain families, particularly the Amarydilaceae and Juncaceae. However, it varies from others due to the presence of the superior ovary and axil placentation. This family of plants is referred to as the lily family. Aloe, Lilium, Tulip, and others are some examples of plants.
Floral Formula of Liliaceae
The flowers of the Liliaceae family are actinomorphic, bracteate, hypogynous, complete, and bisexual. The perianth is made up of six tepals in two whorls of three (polyphyllous or gamophyllous), usually fused into a tube, valvate aestivation, and an occasional tepal anterior. The androecium is polyandrous, epiphyllous, has a dithecous, basifixed or versatile, introrse anther, and has six stamens in two whorls (3 + 3). Syncarpous ovary, axile placentation, trilocular, and trifid stigma in a tricarpellary gynoecium
|P(3+3)||Perianth – 6 tepals in two whorls, gamophyllous|
|A3+3||Androecium – 6 stamens, polyandrous (free), epiphyllous (attached to tepals)|
|G(3)||Gynoecium – tricarpellary, superior ovary, and, syncarpous (united).|
In the floral formula of Liliaceae:
- 6 gamophyllous tepals in two whorls make up the perianth (united)
- Epiphyllous, polyandrous, and has six stamens (attached to tepals)
- Tricarpellary, syncarpous (unified), and superior ovary gynoecium
Common Plants of Liliaceae
|Common name||Scientific name|
|Aloe vera||Aloe vera|
|Dragon plant||Dracaena marginata|
|Autumn crocus||Colchicum autumnale|
Types of Liliaceae
Twelve divisions can be made within the family of Liliaceae.
- Melanthioidae: Scaly leaves cover the rhizome or bulb.
- Herrerioideae: Tubers, growing stems, and miniature flower racemes make up the inflorescence.
- Asphodeloideae: Rhizome with radical leaves and an inflorescence spike.
- Alliodeae: Bulb or short rhizome; umbel-shaped cymose flowers.
- Lilioideae: Stem and bulb both have leaves.
- Scilloideae: Bulb-containing but with a leafless stem.
- Asparagoideae: Subterranean rhizome.
- Dracaenoideae: has upright stems with leafy crowns.
- Ophiopogonoideae: Rhizome is short.
- Aletrioideae: Short rhizomes with lance-shaped or arrow-shaped leaves.
- Luzuriagoideae: Climbing twigs on bushes or under shrubs.
- Smilacoideae: Net veined shrubs belong to this family.
Characteristics of Liliaceae
The Liliaceae family’s salient traits include the following:
- The fibrous root system, the root.
- Stem: Erect; the Liliaceae family of plants comprises perennial herbs that are spread by rhizomes or bulbs.
- Leaves: Parallel venation; alternate, simple; exstipulate.
- Cymose-solitary umbellate clusters make up the inflorescence.
- Complete, actinomorphic, bisexual flower with a present perianth.
- Six tepals (3+3), frequently joined tepals; valvate aestivation; indistinct sepal and petal; perianth.
- Six stamens in two whorls, the androecium (3+3).
- Syncarpous, trilocular, and with axile placentation, the gynoecium is also tricarpellary.
- Fruit: Primarily capsules, berries occasionally.
- Seeds with endosperm.
- Pollination: Entomophilous pollination, that is they are pollinated by insects.
- Their endosperms are oily in nature.
- At the base of the petal, there is the production of nectar.
- They include the species which have the largest genome within the angiosperms.
- They are the source of Medicine. For example- Aloe vera, Colchicine, and Smilax.
- Bulbs of Allium cepa and the roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavoring agents.
- Used as a fiber-yielding plant. Some plants of this group are used in yielding fiber. They are Agave sisalana (Sisal, Bahama hemp), Sansevieria roxburghiana (bowstring hemp), and Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax).
- They are ornamental Plants including Lilium, Gloriosa, tulips, and Ruscus.
- They are a source of food (or) Vegetables-Asparagus.
- They are used as cosmetics. For example, Hyacinthus orientalis produces hyacinth. it is a scent. In addition, cosmetics made from A.vera and Aloe humulis are used.
- Drimia Maritima (Urginea maritima) is utilized as rat poison and a heart stimulant.
- Resin can be extracted from some types of plants.
FAQs on Liliaceae
Question 1: Define morphological characteristics and write an example of them.
Morphological characteristics are defined as the traits which describe the morphology of organisms. Examples include:
- number and arrangement of petals on a flower.
- size of body
Question 2: Write the common examples of the family Liliaceae.
Common examples of the family Liliaceae include lily, tulip, onion, garlic, dragon plant, and, aloe vera.
Question 3: What do Br, P(3+3), and G3 represent in the floral formula of Liliaceae?
- Br represents Bracteate
- P(3+3) represents 6 gamophyllous tepals in two whorls that make up the perianth (united).
- G3 represents Tricarpellary, syncarpous (unified), and superior ovary gynoecium.
Question 4: Write the economic importance of Liliaceae.
There is various economic importance of Liliaceae:
1. Used in medicines
2. Used as field yielding plant
3. Used as an ornamental plant.
4. Used in cosmetics
5. Used as a source of food
Question 5: Name the types of Liliaceae.
There are 12 types named as Melanthioidae, Herrerioideae, Asphodeloideae, Alliodeae, Lilioideae, Scilloideae, Asparagoideae, Dracaenoideae, Ophiopogonoideae, Aletrioideae, Luzuriagoideae, and Smilacoideae