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Introduction to Cyber-Physical System

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A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a system that integrates physical and computational components to monitor and control the physical processes seamlessly.

In other words, A cyber-physical system is a collection of computing devices communicating with one another and interacting with the physical world via sensors and actuators in a feedback loop.

These systems combine the sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities, and leverage these to improve the physical systems’ overall performance, safety, and reliability.

Examples: CPS includes self-driving cars, The STARMAC is a small quadrotor aircraft.

Features of Cyber-Physical System

in terms of the cyber-physical system, there are some features that are classified.

  1. Reactive Computation: Reactive systems, on the other hand, continuously interact with the environment through inputs and outputs. As a classic example of reactive computation, consider a car cruise control program.
  2. Network Connectivity: CPS systems must utilize the network connectivity basis of communication between the cyber and physical world.
  3. Robustness & Reliability: In order to ensure safe and effective operation in dynamic environments, CPS must need efficient reliability.
  4. Concurrency: In cyber-physical systems refers to the simultaneous execution of multiple tasks or processes in a coordinated manner.
  5. Real-Time Computation: CPS systems have real-time computation capabilities that allow for dynamic decision-making based on physical real-world data.
  6. Safety-Critical Application: In terms of the CPS applications where the safety of our systems higher priority over the performance and development of the system.


  • It is a combination of Physics with cyber Components networked which is interconnected.
  • CPS systems are to monitor and control physical processes in a seamless manner.
  • In CPS systems sensors and Actuators work in the feedback loop.
  • In CPS systems devices are designed to interact with physical processes and control them.
  • The CPS systems are more complex compared then IoT devices.
Cyber-Physical System


Application of Cyber-Physical System 

Cyber-Physical systems have the widest application in the real world with technology, cps is mostly applied in many fields as you can see-

  • Agriculture: Through the cps systems we can develop such kinds of sensors and tractors or harvesters that provide information on soil type and condition.
  • Aeronautics: Aeronautics is one area that can benefit from CPS integration. In Aeronautics, CPS can be used to improve aircraft control and safety and improve performance and efficiency.
  • Healthcare and Personalized Medicine: CPS systems have the technology which involves the use of connected medical devices and wearables to monitor patients’ health data.
  • Civil Infrastructure: Cyber-physical systems are using infrastructure improvement with some new efficiency technology. Advanced digital technology like IoT and sensors etc.
  • Manufacturing: In manufacturing CPS can monitor and control the production process in real-time, improving quality and reducing scrap.
  • Transportation: In transportation, CPS can improve safety and efficiency through intelligent traffic management systems, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, and self-driving vehicles.


So in the above, we have done a basic intro part about Cyber-Physical systems. CPS systems have various kinds of functionality to improve Automation, Healthcare, Infrastructure development, and many more fields. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are a complex combination of physical and computational elements that interact in real-time to achieve specific goals.

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Last Updated : 16 Feb, 2023
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