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Important Questions On Objective Of Ecological System

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  • Last Updated : 30 Jun, 2022

An “ecological system” (also known as an “ecosystem”) is a biological system made up of all the living things (including people) in a specific area as well as the nonliving things (such as air, water, and mineral soil) that the living things interact with.

Q1. Which is the biotic component of the ecosystem?. 
a) Pathogens
b) Soil
c) Temperature 
d) Sunlight

Ans- (a) 

  • An abiotic factor is a non-living segment of an ecosystem that forms of environment. such as temperature, water, light, or soil.
  • The living part of an ecosystem is known as biotic components. such as pathogens, parasites, predators, or competitors.
  • An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact with each other and also with the surrounding physical environment.
  • Some examples to explain terrestrial ecosystems like- Forest, grassland, and desert.
  • Some examples to explain aquatic ecosystems. like-Pond, lakes, wetlands, rivers, and estuaries.

Q2. Which of the following are the producers in the ecosystem?
a) Herbivore
b) Carnivore
c) Decomposer
d) Plants
Ans- (d) 

  • Plants are the ‘producers’ in the ecosystem because they make their food by using energy from the sun which means photosynthesis.
  • Primary production is explained as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by plants during the time of photosynthesis.
  • All animals depend on plants (directly or indirectly) for their food needs. They are hence called consumers and also heterotrophs. The herbivorous animals are primary consumers as they live on the producers.
     

Q3. Which of the following is known as a primary consumer?
a) Herbivore
b) Carnivore
c) Decomposer
d) Plants
Ans- (a)

  • Each animal depends (directly or indirectly) on plants for its food needs. Hence they are also called consumers and heterotrophs.
    Herbivorous animals are the primary consumers as they subsist on producers.
  • Plants are the ‘producers’ in the ecosystem because they make their food by using energy from the sun which means photosynthesis.
  • Primary production is explained as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by plants during the time of photosynthesis.
  • Consumers that eat these herbivores are carnivores, or more correctly primary carnivores, though secondary consumers. Those animals
  • which depend on primary carnivores for food are called secondary carnivores.
  • Decomposers are heterotrophic organisms, primarily fungi and bacteria. They converge their energy and nutrient necessary by destroying dead organic matter or detritus. These are called saprotrophs.
     

Q4. What is the amount of energy at successive trophic levels?
a) Amount of energy increases
b) Amount of energy decreases
c) The amount of energy remains constant
d) None of the above
Ans- (b)

  • The amount of energy decreases at successive trophic levels. 
  • When an organism dies it’s far transformed into detritus or lifeless biomass that serves as a power supply for decomposers. 
  • Organisms at every trophic degree rely on the ones on the decreased trophic degree for their power demands. 
  • Organisms occupy an area withinside the herbal environment or in a network in step with their feeding courting with different organisms. 
  • Based on the supply of their vitamins or meals, organisms occupy a particular location withinside the meals chain this is referred to as their trophic degree.
  • Producers belong to the primary trophic degree.
  • Herbivores (number one consumers) belong to the second trophic degree.
  • Carnivores (secondary consumers)belong to the 1/3 trophic degree.
     

Q5. The energy pyramid has a large base of
a) Plants
b) Carnivores
c) Herbivores
d) None of the above
Ans- (a)

  • The food pyramid or energy pyramid has a huge base of plants that are referred to as ‘producers’.
  • The energy in the ecosystem can be depicted in the form of a food pyramid or energy pyramid. 
  • The pyramid has a narrower centre section that depicts the variety and biomass of herbivorous animals, which are called ‘primary consumers’. 
  • The apex depicts the small biomass of carnivorous animals referred to as secondary consumers’.

Q6. Carnivores belong to which section of the energy pyramid?
a) Base 
b) Middle 
c) Apex
d) None of the above 
Ans- (c)
 

The apex depicts the small biomass of carnivorous animals referred to as secondary consumers’. 

  • The energy in the ecosystem can be depicted in the form of a food pyramid or energy pyramid. 
  • The food pyramid or energy pyramid has a huge base of plants is known as producers’. 
  • The pyramid has a narrower centre section that depicts the number and biomass of herbivorous animals, which are called ‘primary consumers’. 
     

Q7. Which of the following biogeochemical cycle maintains the oxygen in the atmosphere?
a) Hydrogen cycle
b) Nitrogen cycle
c) Oxygen cycle
d) Carbon cycle
Ans- (c)
 

  • The oxygen cycle balances the tiers of oxygen in the atmosphere. 
  • Oxygen is taken up through plants and animals from the air throughout respiration. The plants return oxygen to the environment throughout photosynthesis. This connection is the Oxygen Cycle to the Carbon Cycle.
  • Oxygen from the environment is used up in 3 processes, specifically combustion, respiration, and the formation of oxides of nitrogen. 
  • Oxygen is returned to the environment in only one primarily process, that is, photosynthesis. And this formation is the broad outline of the oxygen cycle in nature.
  • Some types of life, especially bacteria, are poisoned through elemental oxygen. In fact, even this method of nitrogen-fixing by bacteria does not take place in the presence of oxygen.

Q8. Carbon return to the atmosphere in the form of?
a) Hydrogen
b) Carbon dioxide
c) Oxygen
d) None of the above
Ans- (b)
 
A considerable amount of carbon returns to the environment as CO2  via the respiratory activities of the producers and consumers. 

  • Carbon cycle
    • The carbon, which happens in organic compounds, is covered in both the abiotic and biotic elements of the ecosystem. 
    • Carbon is a building block of each plant and animal tissue. In the environment, carbon occurs as carbon dioxide (CO2 ).
       

Q9. Plants take up nitrate and nitrites and convert them into?
a) Amino acid
b) Sulphuric acid
c) Carbon dioxide
d) None of the above
Ans- (a)
 

  • Plants usually take up nitrates and nitrites and convert them into amino acids which might be used to make proteins.
  • Nitrogen cycle
    • The process of nitrogen-fixing through microorganisms does not take place in the presence of oxygen.
    • Some different biochemical pathways are used to make the alternative compounds consisting of nitrogen. 
    • These proteins and different complicated compounds are subsequently consumed by animals. 
    • Once the animal or the plant dies, different microorganisms in the soil convert the diverse compounds of nitrogen returned into nitrates and nitrites. 
    • Various types of bacteria transformed into nitrates and nitrites into elemental nitrogen.
    • Thus, there’s a nitrogen cycle in nature in which nitrogen passes from its elemental form in the environment into simple molecules in the soil and water, which get transformed into more complex molecules in living beings and returned again to the simple nitrogen molecule in the environment.
       

Q10. By which process do both species get the benefit?
a) Mutualism
b) Parasitism
c) Commensalism
d) Amensalism
Ans- (a) 
 

  • Both species benefit from mutualism.
  • Interspecific interactions stand up from the interaction of populations of two different species. They may be beneficial, unfavourable, or neutral (neither harm nor benefit) to one of the species or each.
  • Both the species benefit from mutualism and each loses in competition in their interactions with each other. 
  • In both parasitism and predation, the handiest species benefits (parasite and predator, respectively) and the interaction is detrimental to the alternative species (host and prey, respectively).
  • The interaction where one species is benefitted and the other is neither benefited nor harmed is referred to as commensalism.
     

Q.11 What is the optimum noise level for the day prescribed by WHO?
a) 45 dB
b) 60 dB
c) 30 dB
d) 55 dB
Ans- (a) 
 

  • W.H.O. (World Health Organization) has prescribed optimal noise tiers as 45 dB by day and 35 dB through the night. Anything above 80 dB is hazardous.
  • Noise level is observed in phrases of decibels (dB). 
  • An “unwanted sound” is a simple way to define noise.
  • One of the most prevalent contaminants is noise.
  • The essential sources of noise pollution are the usefulness of loudspeakers, loud music systems, and tv in public places as means of delivery i.e. automobiles, railways, aircraft, etc. heavy machines in industries fireworks.
  • Noise pollution leads to irritation and improved blood pressure, loss of temper, decrease in work efficiency, and loss of hearing.

Q12. An algal bloom is related to?
a) Eutrophication
b) Biomagnification
c) Ozone depletion
d) None of the above
Ans- (a)
 

  • Cyanobacteria also referred to as “water blooms,” are the sudden, explosive development of phytoplankton and algae that gives water its green colour.
  • This phytoplankton causes the unexpected demise of a significant fish population by releasing harmful compounds into the water. Eutrophication is the term used to describe the phenomena of nutrient enrichment of a water body.
  • Discharge of domestic waste, agricultural surface runoff, land drainage, and industrial effluents in a water body leads to rapid nutrient enrichment in a water body. 
  • A water body’s excessive nutrient enrichment promotes the growth of aquatic plants including duckweed, water hyacinth, and phytoplankton.
  • Instead of an increase in aquatic species, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) rises. The decaying organic debris and dead plants, which are consumed by heterotrophic protozoans and bacteria, decrease the water’s dissolved oxygen as more plants develop and die (DO). Se might be summed up as an “unwanted sound.”
  • A decrease in DO results in the sudden death of a large population of fish and other aquatic organisms including plants.
     

Q13. Entry of harmful non-biodegradable chemicals into the food chain and leading to greater accumulation is?
a) Eutrophication
b) Biomagnification
c) Both a and b
d) None of the above
Ans- (b) 

Biomagnification
 

  • For crop protection, non-biodegradable insecticides like DDT are frequently employed.
  • From each trophic level, after they enter the food chain, their concentration keeps rising (steps of a food chain).
  • As a result, top users’ bodies gradually begin to accumulate these substances over time.
  • Biomagnification is the process by which dangerous non-biodegradable substances enter the environment in minute concentrations and build up to larger concentrations at various points throughout the food chain.

Q14. Incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produces?
a) Carbon monoxide
b) Nitrogen
c) Helium
d) None of the above
Ans- (a) 
 

Carbon monoxide

  • Carbon monoxide is created as a result of the incomplete burning of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and wood charcoal. 
  • Automobiles using diesel and petroleum are the major sources of carbon monoxide that gets added to the atmosphere. 
  • Carbon monoxide is more dangerous than carbon dioxide. It is a poisonous gas that causes respiratory problems. 
  • Due to its strong affinity for haemoglobin, it substitutes oxygen as it enters the bloodstream. The central nervous system may be harmed.
  • It also causes giddiness, and headaches and interferes with the normal function of the heart.
     

Q15. Which of the following is a greenhouse gas?
a) Carbon dioxide
b) Oxygen
c) Both a and b
d) None of the above
Ans- (a) 
 

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Methane (CH4), and Nitrous oxides (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases that cause global warming.
  • The warming of the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere is a result of the greenhouse effect, a natural process.
  • Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature at the surface of Earth would have been a chilly –180C rather than the present average of 15oC.
  • Clouds and gases reflect about one-fourth of the incoming solar radiation and absorb some of it but almost half of the incoming solar radiation falls on Earth’s surface heating it, while a small proportion is reflected back. The heat that the Earth’s surface reemits as infrared radiation does not entirely escape into space.
  • Because atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons are capable of trapping the outgoing infrared radiation from the earth. 
  • Infra-red radiations trapped by the earth’s surface cannot pass through these gases and increase thermal energy or heat in the atmosphere. Thus, the temperature of the global atmosphere is increased. 
  • This rise in temperature is leading to deleterious changes in the environment and resulting in odd climatic changes (e.g. El Nino effect), thus leading to increased melting of polar ice caps as well as of other places like the Himalayan snowcaps.
     

Q16. Sulphur dioxide causes?
a) Acid rain
b) Eutrophication
c) Biomagnification
d) None of the above
Ans- (a)
 

  • Acid rain is a result of sulphuric acid, which is created when a lot of Sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves in raindrops.

Sulphur dioxide

  • It is made when coal is burned in power plants and autos (cars, trucks, etc.).
  • Structures get discolored and deteriorate because it causes chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll), necrosis, eye irritation, and damage to the respiratory system (asthma, bronchitis) in humans.
     

Q17 The thickness of the ozone is measured by the term?
a) Dobson
b) Decibel
c) Pascal
d) Newton
Ans- (a) 
 

  • Dobson units are used to measure the amount of ozone in an air column from the ground to the top of the atmosphere (DU).
  • The stratosphere contains the ozone layer that protects the earth’s surface from excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. 
  • Chlorine from chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used for refrigeration, air conditioning, fire extinguishers, cleaning solvents, and aerosols causes damage to the ozone layer chlorine contained in the CFCs on reaching the ozone (O3 ) layer split the ozone molecules to form oxygen (O2 ). 
  • That is how the amount of ozone gets reduced and cannot prevent the entry of UV radiation. 
  • Over the Arctic and Antarctic areas, the ozone layer has decreased. This is known as an ozone hole. 
  • This permits the passage of UV radiation on the earth’s atmosphere which causes sunburn, cataracts in the eyes leading to blindness, skin cancer, reduced productivity of forests, etc. 
     

Q18. Montreal protocol is related to
a) Protection of the ozone layer
b) Protection of the water resources
c) Protection of the flora and fauna
d) None of the above
Ans- (a)
 

  • An international agreement known as the Montreal Protocol was signed in Montreal (Canada) in 1987 and went into force in 1989 to regulate the emission of compounds that deplete the ozone layer.
  • Under the “Montreal Protocol” amended in 1990 it was decided to completely phase out CFCs to prevent damage to the ozone layer. 
  • The stratosphere contains the ozone layer that protects the earth’s surface from excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. 
  • Chlorine from chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used for refrigeration, air conditioning, fire extinguishers, cleaning solvents, and aerosols causes damage to the ozone layer chlorine contained in the CFCs on reaching the ozone (O3 ) layer split the ozone molecules to form oxygen (O2 ). 
     

Q19. What is the functional unit of nature?
a) Ecology
b) Ecosystem
c) Both a and b
d) None of the above
Ans- (b)
 

  • A functional unit of nature called an ecosystem is where living things interact both with one another and with their physical surroundings.
  • Ecology is a subject that studies the interactions among organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment.
  • The interaction of biotic and abiotic components results in a physical structure that is characteristic of each type of ecosystem. 
     

Q.20 What is the cycle of elements in ecology called?
a) Chemical Cycle
b) Biogeochemical cycle
c) Geochemical cycle
d) Geothermal cycles

Ans-( b) Biogeochemical cycle

A biogeochemical cycle is a pathway by which a chemical substance cycles the biotic and the abiotic compartments of Earth. 

  • The planet’s ability to store materials and use energy is explained in part by biogeochemical cycles. 
  • The cycles move elements through ecosystems and are important because they store elements and recycle them.
  • The cycling of elements in an ecosystem is called the biogeochemical cycle.
     

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