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Important Articles of the Indian Constitution – Part 1

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  • Last Updated : 01 Dec, 2022
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There are 448 articles in India’s Constitution, which is divided into 25 parts. There are 12 schedules included as well. It has been amended 105 times since its inception in 1949. To date, 127 ( till August 2021) Amendment Bills have been introduced in parliament.


Article 01 – Name and territory of the union.
Article 02 – The new state’s acknowledgement and establishment.
Article 03 – Formation of new states and changes to the areas, boundaries, and names of existing states.

Part 02: Citizenship (From Article no.5  to 11)

Article 05 – Citizenship at the time the constitution was written.
Article 06 – Citizenship rights of a particular person who migrated to India from Pakistan.
Article 08 – Citizenship rights of certain Indian-origin people living outside India.
Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
Article 11 – Parliament has the power to legislate the right to citizenship.

Part 03: Fundamental Rights (From Article no.12 to 35)

The Indian Constitution originally contained seven fundamental rights, but there are now only six. By the 44th amendment act of 1978, the right to property (U/A 31) was removed from the list of fundamental rights. Part XII of the constitution contains a legal right known as U/A 300–A. It is based on American Constitution.

Article 12 – State definition.

From Article no. 14 to Article no. 18 (Right to Equality)

Article 14 – Equal before the law 
Article 15 – Discrimination based on religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth is prohibited
Article 16 – In terms of public employment, there should be no discrimination.
Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
Article 18 – End of titles.

Right to Freedom: (From Article no. 19 to 22)

Article 19 – 
a) Freedom of Speech and expression
b) The right to assemble in a peaceful and non-violent manner.
c) Freedom of association
d) The Freedom to move freely throughout India’s territory.
e) The right to live and settle in any part of India’s territory.
f) The freedom to engage in any profession or conduct any occupation, trade, or business.

Article 20- Immunity from punishment if convicted of a crime.
Article 21- Protection of life and personal liberty.
Article 21 (A)- Right to education
Article 22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right against exploitation (Article no. 23 and 24)

Article 23– Prohibition of human trafficking and forced labour. 
Article 24– Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc. 

Right to freedom of Religion ( From Article no. 25 to 28)

Article 25– Religious freedom includes the freedom to profess, practise, and spread one’s faith.
Article 26 – The right to control religious affairs.
Article 27 – Freedom to pay taxes for the promotion of any religion.
Article 28 – Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights ( From Articles no. 29 and 30)

Article 29 – Minority interests are protected.
Article 30 – Minorities have the right to establish and run educational institutions.

Right to Constitutional Remedies: Article no. 32

Article no. 32– Fundamental Rights Enforcement Remedies.

Directive Principle Of States Policy: From Article no. 36 to 51)

Article 36– Definition of State.
Article 39- Certain policy principles must be followed by the state.
Article 40- Establishment of a village panchayat 
Article 41-In some cases, the right to work, education, and public assistance. 
Article 42 – Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
Article 43 – Living Wages and Other Benefits for Workers
Article 44 – Uniform Civil Code for the citizens 
Article 45 – Children’s education should be free and compulsory.
Article 46 – Promotion of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC educational and economic interests.
Article 47 – It is the responsibility of the state to improve public health by improving nutrition and living standards.
Article 48 – Agriculture and animal husbandry are organized.
Article 49 – Monuments, historic sites, and natural wonders are all protected.
Article 50 – Separation of powers between the executive and the judiciary.
Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.

Part 4(A) – Fundamental Duties: Article no. 51(A)

There are 11 basic responsibilities. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added ten new fundamental responsibilities. One more was added to the list by the 86th Amendment Act of 2002.

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