Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Hydrofluoric Acid Formula – Structure, Properties, Uses, Sample Questions

Improve Article
Save Article
  • Last Updated : 30 Nov, 2022
Improve Article
Save Article

One of the most important acid formulas is the Hydrofluoric Acid formula. It contains hydrogen and fluorine bounded by a single ionic bond.

Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H. Its atomic number is 1 and its electronic configuration is 1s1. It is the lightest element. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-toxic element. Naturally, it exists in molecular form. It is composed of one proton and one electron .it can be produced from a variety of domestic products like natural gas, biomass, solar, and wind.

Florine is a chemical element, it is a non-metal with the symbol F. Its atomic number is 9.And it’s electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p5 .It is a yellowish gas. It is the first element in the family of halogen gasses. It exists naturally in the Earth’s crust and is found in coal, clay, and rocks. It is used in refrigerators, toothpaste, and rocket fuels. Fluorine is critical for the production of nuclear materials for nuclear power plants.

Hydrofluoric Acid 

The Hydrofluoric Acid formula contains fluorine and hydrogen. It is one of the strongest inorganic acids. It is a colorless gas and it can be dissolved in water. It was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1771. It is used to make herbicides and pharmaceuticals. It is mainly used for industrial purposes like electronics manufacturing, glass etching, and metal cleaning. It is used in producing several household items such as fluorescent light bulbs, electronic compounds, and plastics.

Structure Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

The chemical formula of Hydrofluoric Acid is HF. To draw the Lewis structure of Hydrofluoric Acid. Find the total number of valance electrons. Hydrogen is in the 1st group it has one valance electron and fluorine has 7 valance electrons then the total is 8 valance electrons for the HF Lewis structure. Here is no center atom so we’ll just write H and F . Next we place a pair of electrons between atoms that form the chemical bond. This is a c covalent bond between the Hydrogen and Florine atom.

Structure Of Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrofluoric Acid 

Physical Properties Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

  • The molecular weight of Hydrofluoric Acid is 20.006 g/mol
  • Its density is 1.15 g/mol
  • Its melting point is -83.6οC
  • Its boiling point is 19.5οC

Chemical Properties Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

  • The chemical formula of Hydrofluoric Acid is HF 
  •  Hydrofluoric Acid reacts with silicon dioxide to form silicon tetrafluoride and water

SiO2 + 4 HF —–> 2 H2O + SiF4 

  • Silicon reacts with  Hydrofluoric Acid to form silicon tetrafluoride and water

Si + 4 HF —–> 2 H2 + SiF4

  •  Hydrofluoric Acid reacts with potassium to produce potassium fluoride

2 K + 2 HF ——–> H2 + 2 KF

  • Sodium hydroxide reacts with  Hydrofluoric Acid to form sodium fluoride and water

NaOH + HF —-> H2O +NaF

  • Magnesium reacts with  Hydrofluoric Acid to form magnesium fluoride

Mg + 2 HF ——> H2 + MgF2

Preparation Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

  • Fluorine reacts with ammonia to form dinitrogen and hydrofluoric acid

2 NH3 + 3 F2 ——->N2 + 6 HF

  • Fluorine reacts in water to form  Hydrofluoric Acid

2 H2O + 2 F2 —-> O2 + 4 HF

  • Hydrogen reacts with fluorine to produce  Hydrofluoric Acid 

H2 + F2 —> 2 HF

  • Fluorine reacts with sulfuric acid to produce sulfur hexafluoride and hydrofluoric acid

H2SO4 + 4 F2 —–> 2 O2 + 2 HF + SF6

Health Effects Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

  • Hydrofluoric Acid can irritate the eyes nose and respiratory tract
  • Exposure to it can result in severe electrolyte problems
  • It can cause severe pain at the point of contact
  • It may cause lung disease
  • Exposure to the eye may cause permanent visual defects

Safety Measures 

  • When using  Hydrofluoric Acid must wear protective clothing 
  • Use gloves that cover the hands, wrists, and forearms
  • Use protective eyeglasses
  • Wear an acid-resistant apron
  • Ensure all containers of HF are clearly labeled
  • Immediately flush eyes and hands with water

Uses Of Hydrofluoric Acid 

  • Hydrofluoric Acid is used to make herbicides and pharmaceuticals 
  • It is used as a reagent to dissolve silicates and oxides
  • It is used in electrical components and fluorescent light bulbs
  • It is used as a cleaning agent 
  • It is used as an ingredient in manufacturing stain removers 

Frequently Asked Questions on Hydrofluoric Acid 

Question 1: Can Hydrofluoric Acid dissolve humans?


Yes, Hydrofluoric Acid can dissolve the human bodies. Hydrofluoric acid is one of the most powerful acid available.

Question 2: What are the uses of fluorine?


Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F. It is a vital element in the nuclear energy industry. It is used in toothpaste and refrigerators and rocket fuels. Molecular fluorine and atomic fluorine are used in semiconductor manufacturing.

Question 3: Does Hydrofluoric Acid have an expiry date?


Hydrofluoric Acid must be stored in a tightly closed container. Hydrofluoric Acid should not be stored in steel cylinders for more than two years. Cool dry place away from other chemicals or materials. Many fluoride-containing chemicals may react with acid or water to produce HF.

Question 4: Why is Hydrofluoric Acid stored in plastic?


Hydrofluoric Acid must be stored in a tightly closed container made from either Polyethylene, Fluorocarbon, or Lead. Because of the high reactivity toward the glass and moderate reactivity toward many metals.

Question 5: What are the uses of Hydrogen?


Hydrogen is a highly reactive gas. It is widely used in many industrial applications. Hydrogen gas is used as a fuel. It is used in the production of hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen with oxygen to produce oxyhydrogen flame is used for welding and cutting. Its most important use of it is ammonia synthesis.

Question 6: Can we drink Hydrofluoric Acid?


No, Hydrofluoric Acid is very harmful for us and we can not drink it. It can cause a strong caustic effect on the mouth and throat and bleeding of the oral mucosa. Swallowing hydrogen fluoride can damage the stomach and esophagus. The problem may progress for several weeks.

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Related Articles

Start Your Coding Journey Now!