Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Hibernate – Many-to-Many Mapping

View Discussion
Improve Article
Save Article
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 05 Apr, 2022

In RDBMS, we can see a very common usage of parent-child relationships. It can be achieved in Hibernate via 

  1. One-to-many relationship
  2. Many-to-one relationship
  3. One-to-one relationship
  4. Many-to-many relationship

Here we will be discussing how to perform Hibernate – Many-to-Many mappings. Below are the example tables to demonstrate Many-to-Many mappings as listed below:

  • geekEmployeeData
  • SkillsetData
  • geekEmployeeSkill

Implementation:

A. Steps for  Table creation are as follows:

-- Table containing employeedata
create table geeksforgeeks.geekEmployeeData (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   firstName VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   lastName  VARCHAR(20) default NULL,
   salary     INT  default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);
-- Table containing skillsets
create table geeksforgeeks.SkillsetData (
   id INT NOT NULL auto_increment,
   skillName VARCHAR(30) default NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

-- Table which can combine employeedata and skillsets
create table geekEmployeeSkill (
   geekEmpId INT NOT NULL,
   skillId INT NOT NULL,
   PRIMARY KEY (geekEmpId,skillId)
);

geekEmployeeSkill table creation

A Many-to-Many mapping has to be implemented using a Set java collection and it should not contain any duplicate element. A Set can be mapped with a <set> element in the mapping table. It can be initialized with java.util.HashSet. 

B. POJO classes

For geekEmployeeData table data CRUD operations, this is required

Example:

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate GeekEmployeeData Class
 
// Importing required classes
import java.util.Set;
 
// Class
public class GeekEmployeeData {
 
    // Attributes are mapping to geekEmployeeData
 
    // geekEmployeeData.id
    private int id;
   
    // geekEmployeeData.firstName
    private String firstName;
   
    // geekEmployeeData.lastName
    private String lastName;
   
    // geekEmployeeData.salary
    private int salary;
 
    // Collection of skillsets in Set variable
    private Set skillSets;
 
    // Method
    public Set getSkillSets() { return skillSets; }
 
    public void setSkillSets(Set skillSets)
    {
 
        // This keyword refers to current instance itself
        this.skillSets = skillSets;
    }
 
    // Constructor 1
    public GeekEmployeeData() {}
 
    // Constructor 2
    public GeekEmployeeData(String firstName,
                            String lastName, int salary)
    {
 
        // This keyword refers to current instance itself
        this.firstName = firstName;
        this.lastName = lastName;
        this.salary = salary;
    }
 
    // Getter  and Setters
 
    public int getId() { return id; }
    public void setId(int id) { this.id = id; }
    public String getFirstName() { return firstName; }
    public void setFirstName(String firstName)
    {
        this.firstName = firstName;
    }
    public String getLastName() { return lastName; }
    public void setLastName(String lastName)
    {
        this.lastName = lastName;
    }
    public int getSalary() { return salary; }
    public void setSalary(int salary)
    {
        this.salary = salary;
    }
}


 
 

Now let us define another POJO class for “SkillsetData” table. This class should have equals() and hashcode() method and  is definitely required in order to check whether any two elements/objects are equal

 

C. SkillsetData.java 

 

For SkillsetData table data CRUD operations, this is required

 

Example:

 

Java




public class SkillsetData {
    private int id;
    private String skillName;
 
    public SkillsetData() {}
 
    public SkillsetData(String skillName)
    {
        this.skillName = skillName;
    }
 
    public int getId() { return id; }
 
    public void setId(int id) { this.id = id; }
 
    public String getSkillName() { return skillName; }
 
    public void setSkillName(String skillName)
    {
        this.skillName = skillName;
    }
 
    public boolean equals(Object obj)
    {
       
        // This method is definitely required in order to
        // check whether any two elements/objects are equal
        if (obj == null)
            return false;
        if (!this.getClass().equals(obj.getClass()))
            return false;
 
        SkillsetData obj2 = (SkillsetData)obj;
        if ((this.id == obj2.getId())
            && (this.skillName.equals(
                obj2.getSkillName()))) {
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
    // collections calculate the hash value for a given key
    // using the hashCode() method.
    public int hashCode()
    {
       
        // This method is definitely required in order to
        // check whether any two elements/objects are equal
        int tmp = 0;
        tmp = (id + skillName).hashCode();
        return tmp;
    }
}


 
 

D. File: Hibernate-Mapping

 

As we are having many-to-many relationships, <set> element is required to define the rule.

 

The <set> element sets the relationship between two tables. Here it is between “GeekEmployeeData” and “SkillsetData” classes. We need to set “cascade attribute to save-update” to tell Hibernate to persist the “SkillsetData” objects for SAVE. i.e. “CREATE” and “UPDATE” operations should happen at the same time whenever there are changes in the “GeekEmployeeData” objects.

 

  • The “name” attribute is set to the defined Set variable in the parent class, in our case, we have to refer  “SkillsetData”.
  • For each “set” variable, we need to define a separate set element in the mapping file.
  • Here we used the “name” attribute to set the intermediate table name to “geekEmployeeSkill“.

E. geekEmployeeData.hbm.xml

 

XML




<?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
"-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
 
<hibernate-mapping<!-- Root element -->
  <!-- Specific mapping from java class to corresponding table -->
  <class name = "com.geeksforgeeks.GeekEmployeeData" table = "geekEmployeeData">
      <!-- Optional, we can keep description of the information -->
      <meta attribute = "class-description">
         This class contains the geekEmployeeData detail.
      </meta>
      <!--To represent Primary key of the table -->
      <id name = "id" type = "int" column = "id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
       
      <!--  This is very important
       The <set> element sets the relationship between two tables. Here it is between GeekEmployeeData and SkillsetData classes
       We need to set "cascade attribute to save-update" to tell Hibernate to persist the SkillsetData objects for SAVE
       i.e. CREATE and UPDATE operations at the same time as the GeekEmployeeData objects.
       The name attribute is set to the defined Set variable in the parent class, in our case it is SkillsetData.
       For each set variable, we need to define a separate set element in the mapping file.
       Here we used name attribute to set the intermediate table name to geekEmployeeSkill.
        -->
      <set name = "skillSets" cascade="save-update" table="geekEmployeeSkill">
         <key column = "geekEmpId"/>
         <many-to-many column = "skillId" class="com.geeksforgeeks.SkillsetData"/>
      </set>     
       
      <property name = "firstName" column = "first_name" type = "string"/>
      <property name = "lastName" column = "last_name" type = "string"/>
      <property name = "salary" column = "salary" type = "int"/>
       
   </class>
    
   <class name = "com.geeksforgeeks.SkillsetData" table = "SkillsetData">
       
      <meta attribute = "class-description">
         This class contains the skillset records.
      </meta>
       
      <id name = "id" type = "int" column = "id">
         <generator class="native"/>
      </id>
       
      <property name = "skillName" column = "skillName" type = "string"/>
       
   </class>
</hibernate-mapping>


 
 

<hibernate-mapping> Root element
<class> Respective mappings from a Java class to a database table
<meta> Optional one. Used for description 
<id>

mapping of  the unique ID attribute in a class to the primary key of the corresponding database table. 

name attribute of the id element ->   To the property in the class 

column attribute -> To the column in the database table. 

type attribute -> It holds the hibernate mapping type, This mapping types only will convert from Java to SQL data type.

<generator> of <id> Generates Primary key values automatically.
<property> mapping of a Java class property to its corresponding column in the database table.
<set>

This is a very important one as this alone sets the relationship between “geekEmployeeData” and “SkillsetData”.

cascade” attribute has set to save-update-> Hibernate will persist the “SkillsetData” objects for SAVE i.e. CREATE and UPDATE operations at the same time as the “geekEmployeeData” objects. Concurrency should be obtained via this

The “name” attribute is set to the defined Set variable in the parent class, here it represents “SkillsetData”. 

For each set variable, “name” attribute is to set the intermediate table name to “geekEmployeeSkill “.

<key> It represents a column in the “geekEmployeeSkill ” table. There we have foreign key to the parent object ie. table “geekEmployeeData” and links to the “skillId” in the “SkillsetData” table.
<many-to-many>

One “geekEmployeeData” object relates to many “SkillsetData” 

column attribute is used to link intermediate “geekEmployeeSkill”

 

Let us see the main configuration file where we need to specify MySQL connectivity and the reference hbm file

 

F. File: hibernate.cfg.xml

 

XML




<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
"-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD 3.0//EN"
 
<hibernate-configuration>
    <session-factory>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.driver_class">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.url">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/geeksforgeeks</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.username">root</property>
        <!-- Change your appropriate password here -->
        <property name="hibernate.connection.password">xxxx</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
        <property name="show_sql">true</property>
        <property name="format_sql">true</property>
        <property name="hbm2ddl.auto">update </property>
        <mapping resource="geekEmployeeData.hbm.xml" />
    </session-factory>
</hibernate-configuration>


 
 

G. File: GeekEmployeeManytoManyExample.java

 

Let us split the file with individual methods. We need to add a few records to the table namely “geekEmployeeData, SkillsetData, and geekEmployeeSkill” table. By using HashSet, we can add the skillsets one by one as depicted in below example as follows: 

 

Example:

 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate GeekEmployeeManytoManyExample
// Class
 
// Importing required classes
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Set;
import org.hibernate.Criteria;
import org.hibernate.HibernateException;
import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;
import org.hibernate.criterion.Criterion;
import org.hibernate.criterion.LogicalExpression;
import org.hibernate.criterion.Restrictions;
 
// Class
public class GeekEmployeeManytoManyExample {
 
    // Class data member
    private static SessionFactory factory;
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Try block to check for exceptions
        try {
 
            factory = new Configuration()
                          .configure()
                          .buildSessionFactory();
        }
 
        // Catch block to handle exceptions
        catch (Throwable ex) {
 
            // Display command when exception occurred
            System.err.println(
                "Failed to create sessionFactory object."
                + ex);
            throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex);
        }
 
        GeekEmployeeManytoManyExample geekEmployeeObject
            = new GeekEmployeeManytoManyExample();
 
        // Let us have a set of skills for few employees
        HashSet skillSets = new HashSet();
 
        skillSets.add(new SkillsetData("Java"));
        skillSets.add(new SkillsetData("Python"));
        skillSets.add(new SkillsetData("R Programming"));
 
        HashSet databaseSkillSets = new HashSet();
 
        databaseSkillSets.add(new SkillsetData("MySQL"));
        databaseSkillSets.add(
            new SkillsetData("SQL Server"));
        databaseSkillSets.add(new SkillsetData("MongoDB"));
 
        HashSet generalSkillset = new HashSet();
        generalSkillset.add(skillSets);
        generalSkillset.add(databaseSkillSets);
 
        // Add few employee records in database
        Integer empID1 = geekEmployeeObject.addEmployee(
            "GeekA", "GeekA", 100000, skillSets);
        Integer empID2 = geekEmployeeObject.addEmployee(
            "GeekB", "GeekB", 50000, databaseSkillSets);
        Integer empID3 = geekEmployeeObject.addEmployee(
            "GeekC", "GeekC", 50000, skillSets);
    }
 
    /* Method to CREATE an employee in the database. Inserts
data in
geekEmployeeData, SkillsetData and geekEmployeeSkill table
*/
    public Integer addEmployee(String fname, String lname,
                               int salary, Set skillSets)
    {
        Session session = factory.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        Integer employeeID = null;
 
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            GeekEmployeeData employee
                = new GeekEmployeeData(fname, lname,
                                       salary);
            employee.setSkillSets(skillSets);
            employeeID = (Integer)session.save(employee);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException e) {
            if (tx != null)
                tx.rollback();
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
 
        // finally block
        finally {
 
            // Closing the sessions
            // using close() method
            session.close();
        }
 
        return employeeID;
    }
}


 
 

On running the above code, we can see the results in the console.

 

Code Execution:

 

 

Parallelly Checking the table values: 

 

geekemployeeskill data

 

Let us list the records by using hibernate criteria query.

 

By using “Set”, data is stored, while retrieving also needs to use “Set” to achieve it. As we have used hibernate mapping to have <set>, it is easier to get the skillsets. Hibernate helps to achieve it easily. We no need to write complex inner join queries to achieve that. As we have set “show_sql” as true, in the console we can see the generated query. It is shown in the screenshot below.

 

Example:

 

Java




// Java Program to List the Records by
// Using Hibernate Criteria Query
 
// Method
public void listGeekEmployeeData()
{
 
    Session session = factory.openSession();
    Transaction tx = null;
 
    // Try block to check for exceptions
    try {
        tx = session.beginTransaction();
 
        Criteria geekEmployeeCriteria
            = session.createCriteria(
                GeekEmployeeData.class);
        List geekEmployeeList = geekEmployeeCriteria.list();
 
        for (Iterator iterator
             = geekEmployeeList.iterator();
             iterator.hasNext();) {
 
            GeekEmployeeData employeeData
                = (GeekEmployeeData)iterator.next();
            System.out.print("First Name: "
                             + employeeData.getFirstName());
            System.out.print("  Last Name: "
                             + employeeData.getLastName());
            System.out.println("  Salary: "
                               + employeeData.getSalary());
 
            // As we have used Set to store data, during
            // display
            // also we need to use the set
 
            // Iterate and get the skills one by one.
            // An employee may have more than 1 skill
            Set skillSets = employeeData.getSkillSets();
 
            for (Iterator it = skillSets.iterator();
                 it.hasNext();) {
                SkillsetData skillName
                    = (SkillsetData)it.next();
                System.out.println(
                    "SkillName: "
                    + skillName.getSkillName());
            }
        }
 
        tx.commit();
    }
 
    // Catch block to handle exceptions
    catch (HibernateException e) {
 
        if (tx != null)
            tx.rollback();
        e.printStackTrace();
    }
 
    // finally block which will execute for sure
    finally {
 
        // Closing all sessions
        // using close() method
        session.close();
    }
}


 
 

Java




/* List down all the employees by using Hibernate criteria */
geekEmployeeObject.listGeekEmployeeData();


 
 

 

While listing out employee data, we can even filter out data as well for data which is having many-to-many relationships. Via the below code, we can get the details of geekemployee who is earning more than 50000 and their firstname that should start with Geek, and the rest can be anything. “Restrictions” are getting used to achieve that. As we are adding 2 conditions, it is set with “And” in between. Here also by using “Set” we can able to list out the skillsets of the filtered employee(s) alone.

 

Example

 

Java




// Java Program to illustrate Listing Employee Data
 
// Method
// Listing gfgEmployee Data
// Whose firstname like certain name
// and salary > certain value
 
// We can combine expressions using 'And','Or'
public void listGeekEmployeesByNameAndSalaryCriteria()
{
    Session session = factory.openSession();
    Transaction tx = null;
 
    // Try block to check for exceptions
    try {
        tx = session.beginTransaction();
 
        // This will simply return every object that
        // corresponds to the GeekEmployee class.
 
        Criteria geekEmployeeCriteria
            = session.createCriteria(
                GeekEmployeeData.class);
 
        // Here 2 expectations are there one with salary and
        // second one is name.
        // Both are expected to be present. Let us see how
        // to do that
        Criterion salaryExpectation
            = Restrictions.gt("salary", 50000);
 
        Criterion nameExpectation
            = Restrictions.ilike("firstName", "Geek%");
 
        LogicalExpression logicalAndExpression
            = Restrictions.and(salaryExpectation,
                               nameExpectation);
        geekEmployeeCriteria.add(logicalAndExpression);
 
        // As a list we can collect them and can iterate
        List geekEmployeeList = geekEmployeeCriteria.list();
 
        for (Iterator iterator
             = geekEmployeeList.iterator();
             iterator.hasNext();) {
            GeekEmployeeData employeeData
                = (GeekEmployeeData)iterator.next();
 
            // Print statements
            System.out.print("First Name: "
                             + employeeData.getFirstName());
            System.out.print("  Last Name: "
                             + employeeData.getLastName());
            System.out.println("  Salary: "
                               + employeeData.getSalary());
 
            Set skillSets = employeeData.getSkillSets();
 
            for (Iterator it = skillSets.iterator();
                 it.hasNext();) {
                SkillsetData skillName
                    = (SkillsetData)it.next();
 
                // Print statement
                System.out.println(
                    "SkillName: "
                    + skillName.getSkillName());
            }
        }
        tx.commit();
    }
 
    // Catch block to handle exceptions
    catch (HibernateException e) {
        if (tx != null)
            tx.rollback();
 
        // Display exception along with line number
        // using printStacktrace() method
        e.printStackTrace();
    }
 
    // finally block which will execute for sure
    finally {
 
        // Closing the connections
        // to avoid memory leakage
        session.close();
    }
}


 
 

Java




// Let us add filter data by using Restrictions
geekEmployeeObject.listGeekEmployeesByNameAndSalaryCriteria();


 
 

 

Video explanation:

 

 

Conclusion: Writing complex queries, multiple inner joins make the retrieval of data in RDBMS. The same can be achieved in hibernate in an easier and user-friendly manner. Whenever there is a need of connecting more than 1 table, relationships need to be formed. Hibernate make the relationship easier way.

 


My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :

Start Your Coding Journey Now!