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Hemorrhoids (Piles)

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Hemorrhoids is a medical term for piles. Inflammation in the blood vessels of the rectum or near the anus is known as piles. Due to inflammation, the blood vessels are swollen, and these swollen blood vessels caused inflammation of the other surrounding tissues.  In normal conditions, these act like cushions and help to control feces. If these tissues get inflamed then it caused hemorrhoids.

What are Hemorrhoids?


Hemorrhoids (Piles)

The inflammation of blood vessels caused swelling of the blood vessels. Enlarge blood vessels around the anus and rectum both on the internal and external sides. These enlarged blood vessels can be uncomfortable, and painful and they also cause rectal bleeding. We are all born with piles, but it is the starting point. Normally it doesn’t cause any pain and is uncomfortable but if they get inflamed it causes pain. It is very common in the mid-age i.,e 40 and 40+. It can affect all ages and sex.  Anyone gets affected by piles but generally, it is more common in mid-age people not in children. People who are facing below mentioned symptoms are at high risk of developing piles.

  1. If a woman is pregnant
  2. Diet with Low-fiber
  3. Obesity
  4. Lift heavy weights daily
  5. Having strain around the anus at the time of bowel moment
  6. A person already suffering from either constipation or diarrhea

Types of Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids can be classified into different types on the basis of swollen veins inside or outside the anus. Different types of piles are:

External Hemorrhoids

The blood vessel swelled under the skin of the anus. If the external piles are large then it starts causing some hygiene issues which lead to itchiness around the anus. Sometimes, they bleed. 

Internal Hemorrhoids

The swollen veins are present inside the rectum. The internal pile bleeds sometimes, they are less painful usually. During the bowel moment, rectal bleeding occurred known as hematochezia.


Both the internal and external bulge out from the anus known as prolapse. These prolapsed piles cause bleeding and are very painful. Prolapse hemorrhoids are further differentiated on the basis of the extension of the protrusion:

  • Grade-I: No prolapsed internal hemorrhoids
  • Grade-II: If pressure or strain comes over the anus or rectal area, internal hemorrhoid prolapsed. After the removal of pressure once it is over they come back to their normal position.
  • Grade-III: These prolapsed have to push back inside. They need to be treated, they are less painful and don’t get inflamed.
  • Grade-IV: These don’t push back but the pain is unbearable. They need treatment as soon as possible to prevent pain, discomfort, and other future complication.

Causes of Hemorrhoids

Any kind of strain on the veins of the anus and rectum can cause hemorrhoids. Any exercise which causes strain or if pressure increases around the stomach or lower abdominal part make pressure on the veins of the anus or rectum. Due to this blood vessels of the anus and rectum are inflamed and swollen. Other factors which cause hemorrhoids are:

  • Lifting heavy-weight or heavy objects creates pressure on the anus
  • During pregnancy, the body gain weight which creates pelvic pressure.
  • Pelvic pressure because of heavy body weight, and obesity.

Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Various Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Normally people observe mild symptoms and they can be cured on their own. Following are the symptom people feel:

  • Stool with blood
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Itchiness around anus
  • Pain when you sit
  • Hard lumps near the anus which feels sore.


People suffering from piles can also amplify into severe conditions. Such are:

  • Heavy rectal bleeding, leads to anemia
  • Anal Fistula
  • Strangulated hemorrhoid
  • Infection
  • Fecal Incontinence

Risk Factors

There are some factors that increase the risk of evolving piles. Such the factors are:


Almost 50% of females during their pregnancy get piles. During pregnancy body weight of an individual increase which creates strain or pressure over the pelvic area. 


During the time of birth, everyone has a starting point of hemorrhoid but with age chances of having piles increase. Around half the population of the age group of 50 is prone to having piles.


Heavy body weight also is one of the factors which leads to pressure and these people are prone to developing piles.


Intaking of low-fiber diet increases the chances of developing piles.


Doctors examine you based on the symptoms and a physical exam. Doctor examine your anus if you are suspected of piles;

  • Rectal Exam: The doctor checks your anus by inserting a finger to see is any swelling or not.
  • Anoscopy: The doctor used an anoscope to see the interior cell membrane of the anus and rectum. Anoscope is a hollow small tube that inserts into the anus.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: Doctor insert a sigmoidoscope (hollow tube with a camera) to observe the lower sides of the colon and rectum. There are different types of sigmoidoscopy based on the procedures including flexible and rigid sigmoidoscopy.
  • Colonoscopy: The doctor also performs a colonoscopy to confirm whether it is colon cancer or not.

These tests might be uncomfortable but not painful. These procedures are done by doctors without giving anesthesia. But in the colonoscopy procedure, anesthesia is provided to the patient.

Treatment of Hemorrhoids

Treatment of Hemorrhoids

Various Treatments for Hemorrhoids

In major cases, piles recovered on their own, but doctor treatment is required in severe cases. Some treatments help you out from discomfort and itchiness. Even after the treatment you have to follow the do and don’ts as well before the treatment.


  1. Drinking enough amount of water
  2. Intaking vegetables having high fiber
  3. Maintaining hygiene around the anus
  4. Taking a warm shower to get ease itchiness and pain 
  5. Doing ice therapy to relieved discomfort 
  6. Doing regular exercise
  7. Avoid alcohol and caffeine intake 


  1. Not to force your gut during fecal excretion
  2. After fecal secretion gently wipe the area many times
  3. Holding your bowel moment
  4. Try to avoid taking medication by having codeine.

There are 2 types of procedure doctor follow while treating you those are:

Non-Surgical Method

  • Rubber band ligation: The doctor used the rubber band around the vein to cut off the blood supply.
  • Electro Coagulation: Doctor used the electric current to sope the blood flow to the vein.
  • Infrared Coagulation: In this procedure heat is provided to the hemorrhoid vein because of which a clot of blood is formed, & the blood supply to hemorrhoid stops. 
  • Sclerotherapy: In the inflated swollen vein chemical injected by the doctor, chemicals destroy the inflamed tissues.

Surgical Method

  • Hemorrhoidectomy: The doctor removed external or prolapsed hemorrhoids or internal prolapsed piles.
  • Hemorrhoid stapling: In this internal piles or prolonged internal piles are removed by stapling them.

Prevention of Hemorrhoids

Piles are common in old age. By taking some preventive measures you can prevent piles:

  • Do not sit too long and don’t push too hard during fecal excretion
  • Don’t try to hold the bowel moment, use the toilet as the urge hits 
  • Drinking enough water
  • Intaking of fruits and vegetables which are having a high amount of fiber. 
  • Physically active, it also keeps the digestive system active and helps in regular bowel moments.
  • Taking medicine present in the market if you feel any constipation.

Please Note: These measures and Symptoms may vary and are just to provide educational information about the disease and are not standard practices. We advise you to consult a healthcare professional, before trying anything at home.

FAQs on Hemorrhoids (Piles)

Question 1: What are hemorrhoids?


Hemorrhoids are the swollen inflamed veins of the rectum and anus which cause pain and discomfort.

Question 2: What are the risk factors of Piles?


The following are the risk factor that causes hemorrhoids:

  • Sitting for a long time 
  • Staring during bowel moment
  • Eating low fiber diet
  • Obesity

Question 3: What are the symptoms of Piles?


Symptoms of piles are:

  1. Red blood with fecal
  2. Pain around the anus area
  3. Lumps around anus
  4. Mucous on underwear 

Question 4: What are Treatment Options for Piles?


  1. Drinking water
  2. In taking of high fiber food
  3. Surgical removal of the pile

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Last Updated : 03 Apr, 2023
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