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Green Economy

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A green economy is a process of fostering social and environmental sustainability via the encouragement of public and private investment in infrastructure. The green economy is significant because it promotes low-carbon, sustainable economic growth and guarantees that natural resources will continue supporting our well-being by providing resources and environmental services. At their core, economies are made up of laws and standards that reward some behaviors and penalize others. Our economies currently encourage excessive consumerism, weaken social ties, and deplete natural resources. But this is just how our economies have developed to work; it is neither inevitable nor necessary.

Investments in renewable energy, including solar power, onshore and offshore wind power, hydrogen, electric vehicles, and energy-efficient housing, indicate a green economy. Sustainable development is not replaced by the idea of a “green economy,” but rather, a new emphasis is placed on the economy, investment, capital, infrastructure, jobs, skills, and favorable social and environmental results. A green economy places people at the center of its focus while also being closely related to SDG 13, “Climate Action.”

The Guiding Principles of the Green Economy:

  1. Efficiency and Sufficiency: The green economy aims to promote sustainable production and consumption. Low-carbon, resource-conserving, varied, and circular economies are inclusive. It accepts fresh approaches to economic growth that tackle the problem of achieving wealth within the confines of the planet. It acknowledges that if we are to stay within the limits of the earth, there must be a substantial worldwide change to limit the consumption of natural resources to physically sustainable levels. 
  2. Justice: The green economy encourages equity across generations and within them. The green economy is non-discriminatory and inclusive. In addition to providing enough room for wildlife and wilderness, it promotes the equitable distribution of opportunity and outcome, decreasing gaps between individuals. It adopts a long-term outlook on the economy, generating wealth and resilience that serve the needs of present and future citizens while responding quickly to address the multifaceted poverty and injustice that exist now.
  3. The well-being: The green economy is focused on people. Its goal is to produce real, shared wealth. It emphasizes accumulating wealth that will promote well-being. It prioritizes spending on and gaining access to the infrastructure, know-how, and education required for everyone to flourish. It provides chances for ethical and sustainable businesses, jobs, and livelihoods. Although it is based on individual decisions, it is built on collective action for the public good.
  4. Planetary Boundary: The green economy protects, restores, and finances the environment. An inclusive green economy respects and promotes nature’s many distinct values, including the economic importance of producing goods and services, the social values of culture, and the ecological values that support all life. It applies the precautionary principle to prevent the loss of critical natural capital and the violation of environmental boundaries while acknowledging the limited sustainability of natural capital with other capitals. It invests in preserving, expanding, and restoring the earth’s soil, water, air, and natural systems. It is creative in managing natural systems, taking into account their characteristics like circularity and matching with the lives of the local community that depend on biodiversity and natural systems.
  5. Good Governance: An inclusive green economy is grounded on evidence; its institutions and norms are cross-disciplinary, utilizing both reliable science and economics and local expertise for adaptive strategy. It is backed by institutions with the necessary resources to fulfill their various duties in an effective, efficient, and accountable manner. These institutions are integrated, collaborative, and cohesive across sectors and governance levels. So that societal demand is added to enlightened leadership, it demands public engagement, prior informed consent, transparency, social dialogue, democratic accountability, and freedom from entrenched interests in all institutions—public, private, and civil society. While upholding robust, uniform, centralized standards, procedures, and compliance systems, it encourages decentralized decision-making for local economies and the management of natural systems.

The Three Primary Focuses of the Current Green Economy

  • Green Economy ideas will be demonstrated, emphasizing investments, technology, and financial access.
  • Assistance with developing and implementing macroeconomic policies to help nations transition to a green economy.
  • Employing regional, sub-regional, and national fora to promote the macroeconomic approach to sustainable economic growth.

The Green Economy Transition’s Business Opportunities:

Companies must switch to a green economy to meet their goals for sustainable development. This beneficial circle fosters sustainable manufacturing, encourages resource and energy efficiency, and allows the adoption of ecologically friendly items, procedures, and technology. Although developing a green economy through initiatives like “no use of carbon” takes time and money, businesses themselves are increasingly seeing these initiatives as offering green economy economic prospects. Since innovation is the primary driver of economic growth across the board, the green economy is no exception. The use of low-carbon technologies and practices, as well as technologies that rely on clean and renewable energy, is encouraged by green economy business opportunities, which emphasize building a healthy environment and promoting the well-being of all.

Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE):

The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) aims to make economic policymaking centered on sustainability. The Partnership helps countries and regions reorient their economic practices and policies toward sustainability to promote economic growth. As a result, poverty and inequality are decreased, income and jobs are created, and the ecological foundations of their economies are strengthened. PAGE was created directly to the Rio+20 Declaration, The Future We Want, which urged the international community and the UN system to help interested nations make, adopt, and implement green economy policies and strategies. PAGE offers a comprehensive and well-coordinated package of technical support and capacity-building services by combining the expertise of five UN agencies: UNEP, ILO, UNIDO, UNDP, and UNITAR.

Green Energy Initiatives Launched by the Government:

  • Reduction of corporate tax: At the moment, businesses in the renewable energy sector rely primarily on these indirect state incentives because there aren’t any clear rules or policies yet protecting the renewable energy market. Indian businesses will be more competitive in the international market due to the corporation tax rate now being among the lowest in the world. They’ll want to stay and grow their business in India. A 15% personal income tax rate is an option for new domestic companies that only function in the manufacturing sector and were founded on or after October 1, 2019. Companies that commence manufacturing on or before March 31, 2023, are eligible for this tax benefit. Such businesses pay an effective tax rate of 17.01%. This action would benefit not only India’s manufacturing industry but also all commercial activities there and help the industry as a whole to recover.
  • Enhance land purchase: Private businesses currently find it highly challenging to purchase land in India. Private companies should now experience a shift in this due to the government’s efforts to alter the mechanism used for land acquisition. The so-called “plug and play” concept will replace the current mechanism for awarding renewable energy projects in the future, which should reduce significant risks. According to the “plug and play” plan, the government will essentially buy the land and manage the initial and most crucial permissions later. Following that, the projects and land that have been acquired will be distributed to private enterprises in accordance with the recognized bidding process.
  • Quintessential power purchase Agreements: The government now considers the national standardization of all power purchase agreements (“PPAs”) for solar and wind energy. The new power purchase agreements should include a stiff penalty if the state breaches its responsibilities or defaults, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy announced. Letters of credit should also be accepted as a form of payment.

Strategies for Achieving a Green Economy:

  • Sustainable Infrastructure: Economic activity, environmental quality, and resource consumption are all heavily impacted by land use decisions. Planning and zoning control thus gives local governments powerful instruments for shaping the green economy. Local governments may raise citizens’ living standards and enhance the business climate by promoting wise, rational land use decisions.
  • Utilization and Production Locally: Local production and consumption boost economic security and communal wealth while reducing the adverse environmental effects of long-distance freight transportation. The benefits of local spending spread throughout entire local economies because of the multiplier effect. Communities may receive better food at a lesser cost when it is locally sourced. Renewable energy produced nearby can lower the cost of living for locals and the cost of doing business for companies and increase supply security.
  • Stream Management of Waste: Local governments are generating employment and lowering corporate expenses by reducing the costs and negative externalities related to trash disposal. Several municipal governments have established aggressive solid waste management initiatives. For instance, Hawaii County wants to create a world with no waste. Innovative technologies will be needed to reduce the waste stream, boost recycling rates, and convert garbage to energy without relying on incineration to achieve this aim.
  • Development of the Green Economy: The traditional goal of economic growth is to increase the output of commodities and services. For creating local money, production and exportation are essential. As a result, most traditional economic development strategies center on increasing exports. A green economy adapts conventional economic development tactics to create businesses that enhance environmental consequences.
  • Green purchasing and resource efficiency: There are other, frequently more efficient approaches for constructing green local economies in addition to green economic development strategies that enhance production and supply. Utilizing the community’s purchasing power and the demand for energy, water, and environmentally friendly products, resource efficiency, and green purchasing are two main ways of tackling the consumption side of the green economy.


  • A decrease in production and expenses that leads to the more responsible use of raw materials and an increase in energy efficiency;
  • Lowering waste by recycling and reusing items that have reached the end of their useful lives;
  • New employment creation, including for project managers, consultants, installers, coordinators, etc.
  • Revenue growth for products that respect the environment and the world.


  • Companies must implement new procedures and reduce their environmental impact to the greatest extent possible to participate in the green economy. This idea is still a long way from being a reality in many nations.
  • The transition to a green economy in underdeveloped nations is the second difficulty. They deal with severe poverty and escalating environmental issues. Adopting a successful green economic system in these areas is challenging and necessitates a more in-depth bioeconomic examination.


India ranks 68th out of 80 countries on the Global Green Economy Index despite having made significant international commitments to the Paris Climate Agreement and the 2030 Global Development Agenda (GGEI). In light of the numerous crises and rising resource shortages, the economic paradigm of greening the economy has taken center stage in regional and global sustainable development processes. The timely provision of high-quality and pertinent skills is essential to a green economy. Workers need to update their skills or learn new ones and be prepared with sustainability-related capabilities, which Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) may deliver. A fresh approach to the economy is needed to address these issues. Future research should focus more on green innovation in the public sector. Of course, this might concentrate on various institutional and organizational innovations, such as new and/or updated designs for policy instruments. Innovation in this area is frequently necessary to address the difficulties associated with developing and implementing technology-specific sustainability policies, sometimes called “green industrial policies.” These rules are more like the state’s and the industry’s discovery processes than a set of specialized policy tools. This calls for regularly identifying the opportunities and restrictions and then adapting to them. It is essential to encourage the development of green technologies that address environmental issues. To do this, we must stimulate the demand for green technologies, products, and services, opening up new markets and employment prospects. The time has come to embrace the green economy.

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Last Updated : 21 Sep, 2022
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