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Functions that accept variable length key value pair as arguments

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  • Last Updated : 13 Aug, 2021

To pass a variable-length key-value pair as an argument to a function, Python provides a feature called **kwargs.
kwarg stands for Keyword arguments. It proves to be an efficient solution when one wants to deal with named arguments in their function.

Syntax:

def functionName(**anything):
    statement(s)

Note: adding ‘**‘ to any term makes it a kwarg parameter. It accepts keywords as arguments. 

Example #1: 

Python3




# using kwargs
# in functions
 
 
def printKwargs(**kwargs):
    print(kwargs)
 
 
# driver code
if __name__ == "__main__":
    printKwargs(Argument_1='gfg', Argument_2='GFG')


Output:

{'Argument_1': 'gfg', 'Argument_2': 'GFG'}

Example #2:

Python3




# using kwargs
# in functions
 
 
def printValues(**kwargs):
    for key, value in kwargs.items():
        print("The value of {} is {}".format(key, value))
 
 
# driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    printValues(abbreviation="GFG", full_name="geeksforgeeks")


Output:

The value of abbreviation is GFG
The value of full_name is geeksforgeeks

Example #3:

Python3




# using kwargs
# in functions
# to concatenate
 
 
def concatenate(**arguments):
    # initialising empty string
    final_str = ""
     
    # Iterating over the Python kwargs
    # dictionary
    for elements in arguments.values():
        final_str += elements
    return final_str
 
 
# driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    print(concatenate(a="g", b="F", c="g"))


Output:

gFg

Example #4:

Python3




# using kwargs
# to multiply
 
 
def multiply(**kwargs):
   
    # initialising answer
    answer = 1
     
    # Iterating over the Python kwargs
    # dictionary
    for elements in kwargs.values():
        answer *= elements
    return answer
 
 
# driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    print(multiply(a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4, e=5))


Output:

120

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