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French Revolution

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The French Revolution turned into a length of profound social and political upheaval that came about in France from 1789 to 1799. It had some distance-achieving effects now not only in France but additionally in Europe and beyond. Here are a few key aspects and occasions of the French Revolution:

French Revolution

French Revolution

1. Political and Social Context: France within the overdue 18th century turned into an absolute monarchy under King Louis XVI. Society turned into divided into three estates: the clergy, the Aristocracy, and the commoners (the Third Estate), with the bulk of the populace belonging to the Third Estate. The gadget turned into characterized with the aid of sizeable inequality, economic crisis, and political discontent.

2. Estates-General and the Formation of the National Assembly: In 1789, going through a severe economic crisis, the king was known for an assembly of the Estates-General, an assembly representing the 3 estates. Disputes over balloting techniques led the Third Estate to interrupt away and form the National Assembly, affirming its authority as the consultant frame of the humans.

3. Storming of the Bastille: On July 14, 1789, Parisians stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority and a prison. The occasion marked the beginning of the revolution and is widely known as 14 July in France.

4. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: The National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August 1789. It proclaimed the standards of liberty, equality, and fraternity, and hooked up the foundation for a democratic society.

5. Reign of Terror: The revolution took an intensive flip with the upward thrust of the Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre. The period referred to as the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) turned into characterized by means of mass executions and suppression of perceived enemies of the revolution.

6. Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte: In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, an army standard, seized strength thru a coup d’état and mounted himself as First Consul. This marked the give up of the modern period and the start of the Napoleonic era.

7. Impact on Europe: The French Revolution had a profound impact on Europe, inspiring progressive movements and challenging the present order. It caused the spread of modern thoughts, the abolition of feudalism in many regions, and the Napoleonic Wars that reshaped the political panorama of Europe.

8. Legacy: The French Revolution introduced massive political, social, and cultural adjustments to France. It brought about the stop of absolute monarchy, the upward thrust of nationalism, the established order of secularism, and the unfolding of innovative beliefs of liberty, equality, and democracy.

The French Revolution stays a pivotal moment in history, symbolizing the warfare for freedom, social justice, and the electricity of popular movements. It remains studied and analyzed for its impact on political ideologies, social transformation, and the complexities of innovative trade.

French Revolution

French Revolution and the idea of the Nation

Causes of the French Revolution

The causes of the French Revolution are as follows:

The French Revolution, which passed between 1789 and 1799, became a length of radical social and political upheaval in France. Several key elements contributed to the outbreak of the revolution. Here are a number of the primary causes:

1. Socioeconomic Inequality: France at the time became characterized by a stark socioeconomic divide. The majority of the population, especially the lower instructions, and peasants, faced excessive poverty, while the nobility and clergy enjoyed privileges and exemptions. The burdensome taxation system and the unequal distribution of wealth created resentment and discontent among the various hundreds.

2. Financial Crisis: France changed into pressured by a widespread financial crisis. Years of wars, extravagant spending via the monarchy, and a regressive tax system had left the united states of America in a dire financial state of affairs. The monarchy’s tries to elevate revenue, inclusive of enforcing new taxes, sparked competition and in addition, exacerbated social unrest.

3. Enlightenment Ideas: The Enlightenment, a highbrow movement that emphasized cause, liberty, and equality, had a profound effect on French society. The ideas of philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu spread at some stage in France, questioning the authority of the monarchy and advocating for political and social alternatives.

4. Influence of the American Revolution: The fulfillment of the American Revolution against British rule stimulated many French intellectuals and revolutionaries. They noticed the American Revolution for instance of the triumph of liberty and the overthrow of tyranny, further fueling the choice for political exchange in France.

5. Weak Leadership and Royal Absolutism: King Louis XVI and his advisers were perceived as vulnerable and useless in addressing the country’s issues. The monarchy’s absolute power and brushing aside the grievances of human beings eroded its legitimacy and contributed to the developing demand for political reforms.

6. Economic and Food Crises: In the years leading as much as the revolution, France skilled intense financial downturns and substantial meal shortages. High bread expenses and scarcity of fundamental necessities brought on a significant problem, main to public unrest and anger directed at the monarchy.

7. Influence of the Estates-General: The Estates-General, the reign meeting representing the 3 estates of French society (clergy, nobility, and commoners), was convened in 1789 to deal with the financial disaster. However, disputes over balloting processes and representation led to the formation of the National Assembly by means of the Third Estate, signaling a task to the authority of the monarchy.

These reasons, along with a variety of different social, political, and cultural factors, contributed to the eruption of the French Revolution. The revolution added about profound modifications in France, along with the overthrow of the monarchy, the upward push of radical political factions, and the status quo of a brand new social and political order.

Timeline of the French Revolution




The Estate-General convened for the first time in 175 years, where The Third Estate demanded more representation.


National Assembly was created as a result of the Tennis Court Oath, where delegates from the Third Estate pledged to remain until they reformed France’s government.


The National Assembly drafted the Constitution of 1791, which created a limited monarchy.


 War of First Coalition, France declared war on Austria.


The Reign of Terror began, and thousands were executed including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.


The Reign of Terror ended with the fall of Robespierre


As a result of the Thermidorian Reaction, The Directory was established, which ruled France until 1799.

The Revolution and Everyday Life

For any change to last long, it needs to be incorporated into daily life. Can political people ever change the way people dress, talk, and live? This means that politics changes the mindset of the people to the extent they accept it in everyday life which is seen in France after 1789. Through the French government, the idea of ​​fraternity, equality, and liberty all translates into everyday practices.

1989- Abolition of Censorship

1989- Abolition of Censorship

In France after 1789, many changes took place in the lives of men, women, and children. Revolutionary administrations took the blame for shifting laws that had turned the antithesis of liberty and equality into everyday practice. A resultant constitution, which later came into effect, breathed the repression’s invalidation. The ideals of liberty and republican birthright were the most consequential legacy of the French Revolution. They broadcast from France to the rest of Europe during the 19th century.

  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens declared freedom of speech and expression a natural right.
  • Censorship in French was abolished. Books, newspapers, and plays could now be read and performed without the approval of the king’s censors.
  • The repression ended after the Bastille was smoked in the summer of 1789.
  • The opposition to the rights of man and citizen called for self-determination of declaration and expression as a birthright.
  • Magazines, pamphlets, books, and published large screens overwhelmed the city of France, from where they rapidly roamed the countryside, drawing and depicting the events and anomalies of displacement in France.
  • The plays, songs, and gleeful processions attracted a considerable composition of people who breathed away and could contrast with ideas such as liberty or justice.
  • Magazines, pamphlets, editions, and printed prints overwhelmed the French cities and country

Significance of the French Revolution

French Revolution is regarded as a turning point in modern history, as there was a rise of new philosophies and ideas deep-rooted in democracy, liberalism, and enlightenment. These ideas were carried out to other parts of Europe by the French armies that fought many wars in order to preserve the Republic’s existence. It inspired the common masses throughout Europe to rise up against their own monarchs in a wave of revolutionary urges. The French Revolution put an end to feudalism and craved a path for future advances from a more individual freedoms perspective.

Global Impact of French Revolution

Global Impact of the French Revolution

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FAQs on French Revolution

Q 1. What is French Revolution?


The earliest clear articulation of super-patriotism accompanied the French Revolution in 1789. France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an arbitrary monarchy. The political and indigenous disagreement that followed in the wake of the French Revolution organized the transfer of self-dependence from the monarchy to the generality of French nationals.  

Q 2. What are the causes of the French Revolution?


The main causes of French Revolution can be categorised into 4 categories:

  • Social Causes
  • Economic Causes
  • Political Causes
  • Intellectual Causes

Q 3. When did the French Revolution start?


The Revolution started on 5th May 1789.

Q 4. Delineate the condition of France before the revolution.  


  • France was under the rule of an emperor, Louis XVI.
  • All political powers were in the hands of the first two estates.
  • All taxes were paid by the people of the Third Estate.
  • The government was deeply indebted.

Q 5. Significance of the French Revolution.


  • The French Revolution is one of the most consequential cases on record in Europe. This was a proven achievement for the idea of ​​a republic when it put forward the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • The greatest presentation of the French Revolution was the example of equality. The fraternity was the epitome of the new French nationalism. It was the most concentrated force in the reshaping of the borders of Europe. Total Western Europe between the Pyrenees and the Baltic became invested with the ideals of the Revolution.
  • The French Revolution played an important role in the success of Greek independence (1830) as the struggle for Greek independence drew strength from the ideals of the French Revolution.
  • The French Revolution also revolutionized the development of nationalism in European countries.
  • The French Revolution also inspired mass movements of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century along with the nationalist passion around the world including India.

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Last Updated : 02 Jun, 2023
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