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Find unique substrings consisting of only vowels from given String

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 05 Apr, 2022

Given string str of size N consisting of uppercase and lowercase English letters. The task is to find all unique substrings containing only vowels.

Examples:

Input: str = “GeeksforGeeks”
Output: “ee” , “e”, “o”
Explanation: There are multiple occurrences of some of the substrings like “ee” but these are the only unique substrings.

Input: str = “TRAnsmission”
Output: “A”, “io”, “i”, “o”

Input: str = “AioutraevbcUoee”
Output: “Aiou”, “Aio”, “Ai”, “A”, “iou”, “io”, “i”, “ou”, “o”, “u”, “ae”, 
“a”, “e”, “Uoee”, “Uoe”, “Uo”, ” U”, “oee”, “oe”, “ee”

 

Naive Approach: The simplest approach is to generate all substrings and check each of them if they contain only vowels or not and if they are unique. Use the following steps:

  • Generate all substrings of the string.
  • Use map to keep track of unique substrings.
  • If the substring consists of only vowels and is not on the map, add it to the map and store it as an answer.
  • Print all the answers

Below is the implementation of the above approach:  

C++




// C++ code to implement the above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to check if a character is vowel
bool isvowel(char ch)
{
    return (ch == 'a' or ch == 'A' or
            ch == 'e' or ch == 'E'
            or ch == 'i' or ch == 'I'
            or ch == 'o' or ch == 'O' or
            ch == 'u' or ch == 'U');
}
 
// Function to check whether
// string contains only vowel
bool isvalid(string& s)
{
    int n = s.length();
 
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
         
        // Check if the character is
        // not vowel then invalid
        if (!isvowel(s[i]))
            return false;
    }
 
    return true;
}
 
// Function for generating
// all unique substrings of only vowels.
void generateVowelSubstrings(string params)
{
    int ans = 0;
    unordered_map<string, bool> map;
     
    // Generate all substring of string
    for (int i = 0; i < params.length();
         i++) {
        string temp = "";
        for (int j = i; j < params.length();
             j++) {
            temp += params[j];
             
            // If temp contains only vowels
            if (isvalid(temp)) {
                map[temp] = true;
            }
        }
    }
     
    unordered_map<string, bool>::iterator itr;
    for (itr = map.begin(); itr != map.end();
         ++itr) {
         
        // Printing all unique substrings.
        cout << itr->first << '\n';
    }
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    string str = "GeeksForGeeks";
    generateVowelSubstrings(str);
    return 0;
}


Java




/*package whatever //do not write package name here */
// Java code to implement the above approach
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG {
    // Function to check if a character is vowel
    public static boolean isVowel(char ch)
    {
        return (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e'
                || ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I'
                || ch == 'o' || ch == 'O' || ch == 'u'
                || ch == 'U');
    }
    // Function to check whether
    // string contains only vowel
    public static boolean isValid(String s)
    {
        int n = s.length();
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            // Check if the character is
            // not vowel then invalid
            if (!isVowel(s.charAt(i)))
                return false;
        }
        return true;
    }
 
    // Function for generating unique substrings of vowels.
    public static void
    generateVowelSubstrings(String string)
    {
        int ans = 0;
        HashMap<String, Boolean> map = new HashMap<>();
        // Generate all subString of s
        for (int i = 0; i < string.length(); i++) {
            String temp = "";
            for (int j = i; j < string.length(); j++)
            {
                temp += string.charAt(j);
               
                // If temp contains only vowels
                if (isValid(temp))
                {
                   
                    // store it only if substring is absent
                    // in map.
                    map.putIfAbsent(temp, true);
                }
            }
        }
        for (String key : map.keySet())
        {
           
            // printing all unique substring.
            System.out.println(key);
        }
    }
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        String str = "GeeksForGeeks";
        generateVowelSubstrings(str);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by kaalel.


Python3




# JavaScript code to implement above approach
 
# Function to check if a character is vowel
def isVowel(c):
     
        # Checking for vowels.
    return ((c == "a") or (c == "A") or
            (c == "e") or (c == "E") or
            (c == "i") or (c == "I") or
            (c == "o") or (c == "O") or
            (c == "u") or (c == "U"))
 
# Extracting all the maximum length
# sub-strings that contain only vowels.
def vowelSubstrings(params):
    str = ""
 
    # Using map to remove identicals
    # substrings. e.g. AiotrfAio has 2 "Aio".
    map = {}
    for i in range(len(params)):
        subString = params[i: i + 1]
        if(isVowel(subString)):
                str += subString
        else:
            # Storing a substring only if
            # it is not empty.
            if len(str) != 0:
                map[str] = True
                str = ""
    if (len(str) != 0):
        map[str] = True
    return map
 
    # Function to generate all unique substrings
    # containing only vowels
def generateVowelSubstrings(params):
 
    substringMap = vowelSubstrings(params)
    map = {}
         
        # map iterator.
    for itr in substringMap:
        x = itr
 
        # For each substring stored in map
        # generate all possible substrings.
        for i in range(len(x)):
            for l in range(1,len(x) - i+1):
                # Storing the generated
                # substring if it is
                # absent in the map.
                map[x[i:i + l]] = True
 
    for itr in map:
         
        # Printing all values in map.
        print(itr)
 
# Driver code
str = "GeeksForGeeks"
generateVowelSubstrings(str)
 
# This code is contributed by shinjanpatra


C#




/*package whatever //do not write package name here */
// C# code to implement the above approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class GFG
{
   
    // Function to check if a character is vowel
    public static bool isVowel(char ch)
    {
        return (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e'
                || ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I'
                || ch == 'o' || ch == 'O' || ch == 'u'
                || ch == 'U');
    }
    // Function to check whether
    // string contains only vowel
    public static bool isValid(string s)
    {
        int n = s.Length;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            // Check if the character is
            // not vowel then invalid
            if (!isVowel(s[i]))
                return false;
        }
        return true;
    }
 
    // Function for generating unique substrings of vowels.
    public static void generateVowelSubstrings(string str)
    {
 
        Dictionary<string, bool> map
            = new Dictionary<string, bool>();
        // Generate all subString of s
        for (int i = 0; i < str.Length; i++) {
            string temp = "";
            for (int j = i; j < str.Length; j++) {
                temp += str[j];
 
                // If temp contains only vowels
                if (isValid(temp)) {
 
                    // store it only if substring is absent
                    // in map.
                    if (!map.ContainsKey(temp))
                        map[temp] = true;
                }
            }
        }
        foreach(KeyValuePair<string, bool> i in map)
        {
 
            // printing all unique substring.
            Console.WriteLine(i.Key);
        }
    }
   
    // Driver Code
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        string str = "GeeksForGeeks";
        generateVowelSubstrings(str);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by ukasp.


Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript code for the above approach
 
// Function to check if a character is vowel
function isvowel(ch)
{
    return (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e' ||
            ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I' ||
            ch == 'o' || ch == 'O' || ch == 'u' ||
            ch == 'U');
}
 
// Function to check whether
// string contains only vowel
function isvalid(s)
{
    let n = s.length;
 
    for(let i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
         
        // Check if the character is
        // not vowel then invalid
        if (!isvowel(s[i]))
            return false;
    }
    return true;
}
 
// Function for generating all unique
// substrings of only vowels.
function generateVowelSubstrings(params)
{
    let ans = 0;
    let map = {};
 
    // Generate all substring of string
    for(let i = 0; i < params.length; i++)
    {
        let temp = "";
        for(let j = i; j < params.length; j++)
        {
            temp += params[j];
 
            // If temp contains only vowels
            if (isvalid(temp))
            {
                map[temp] = true;
            }
        }
    }
    Object.keys(map).forEach(function (key)
    {
        document.write(key + '<br>');
    });
}
 
// Driver code
let str = "GeeksForGeeks";
 
generateVowelSubstrings(str);
 
// This code is contributed by Potta Lokesh
 
</script>


Output

o
e
ee

Time Complexity: O(N3)
Auxiliary space: O(N)

Efficient Approach: A better approach to solve this problem is to extract all the maximum length substrings that contain only vowels. Now for all these sub-strings separately, generate unique sub-strings that contains only the vowels with the help of a map. Follow the steps mentioned below:

  • Store all the maximum length substrings that contain only vowels(e.g For “Geeksaioer” maximum length one is “ee” and “aioe”).
  • Use these substrings and generate the smaller segments from these substrings and use the map to find the unique ones.
  • Print all the unique strings.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:   

C++




// C++ code to implement above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to check if a character is vowel
bool isVowel(string c)
{
    // Checking for vowels.
    return ((c == "a") || (c == "A") ||
            (c == "e") || (c == "E") ||
            (c == "i") || (c == "I") ||
            (c == "o") || (c == "O") ||
            (c == "u") || (c == "U"));
}
 
// Extracting all the maximum length
// sub-strings that contain only vowels.
unordered_map<string, bool> vowelSubstrings(
    string params)
{
    string str;
     
    // Using map to remove identicals
    // substrings. e.g. AiotrfAio has 2 "Aio".
    unordered_map<string, bool> map;
    for (int i = 0; i < params.length();
         i++) {
        string subString = params.substr(i, 1);
        if (isVowel(subString)) {
            str += subString;
        }
        else {
             
            // Storing a substring only if
            // it is not empty.
            if (!str.empty())
                map[str] = true;
            str = "";
        }
    }
    if (!str.empty())
        map[str] = true;
    return map;
}
 
// Function to generate all unique substrings
// containing only vowels
void generateVowelSubstrings(string params)
{
    unordered_map<string, bool> substringMap
        = vowelSubstrings(params);
    unordered_map<string, bool> map;
    // map iterator.
    unordered_map<string, bool>::iterator itr;
    for (itr = substringMap.begin();
         itr != substringMap.end(); ++itr) {
        string x = itr->first;
         
        // For each substring stored in map
        // generate all possible substrings.
        for (int i = 0; i < x.length(); i++) {
            for (int len = 1; len <=
                 x.length() - i; len++)
            {
                // Storing the generated
                // substring if it is
                // absent in the map.
                map[x.substr(i, len)] = true;
            }
        }
    }
    for (itr = map.begin(); itr != map.end();
         ++itr) {
        // Printing all values in map.
        cout << itr->first << '\n';
    }
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    string str = "GeeksForGeeks";
    generateVowelSubstrings(str);
    return 0;
}


Java




/*package whatever //do not write package name here */
// Java code to implement above approach
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG {
    // Function to check if a character is vowel
    public static boolean isVowel(String c)
    {
        // checking for vowels.
        return (c.equals("a") || c.equals("A")
                || c.equals("e") || c.equals("E")
                || c.equals("i") || c.equals("I")
                || c.equals("o") || c.equals("O")
                || c.equals("u") || c.equals("U"));
    }
 
    // extracting all the maximum length sub-strings that
    // contain only vowels.
    public static HashMap<String, Boolean>
    VowelSubstrings(String string)
    {
        String str = "";
        // using map to remove identicals substrings. Ex :-
        // AiotrfAiopdvge(it has 2 "Aio").
        HashMap<String, Boolean> map = new HashMap<>();
        for (int i = 0; i < string.length(); i++) {
            String subStr = string.substring(i, (i + 1));
            if (isVowel(subStr)) {
                str += subStr;
            }
            else {
                // storing a substring only if it is
                // present.
                if (!str.isEmpty())
                    map.putIfAbsent(str, true);
                str = "";
            }
        }
        if (!str.isEmpty())
            map.putIfAbsent(str, true);
        return map;
    }
    // Function to generate all unique substrings
    // containing only vowels
    public static void
    generateVowelSubstrings(String string)
    {
        HashMap<String, Boolean> substringMap
            = VowelSubstrings(string);
        HashMap<String, Boolean> map = new HashMap<>();
        for (String key : substringMap.keySet()) {
            // for each key(substring) stored in map, we
            // generate all possible substrings.
            for (int i = 0; i < key.length(); i++) {
                for (int j = i + 1; j <= key.length();
                     j++) {
                    // storing the generated substring if it
                    // is absent in the map.
                    map.putIfAbsent(key.substring(i, j),
                                    true);
                }
            }
        }
        for (String key : map.keySet()) {
            // printing all values in map.
            System.out.println(key);
        }
    }
    // Driver Code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        String str = "GeeksForGeeks";
        generateVowelSubstrings(str);
    }
}


Python3




# Python code to implement above approach
 
# Function to check if a character is vowel
def isVowel(c):
   
    # Checking for vowels.
    return ((c == "a") or (c == "A") or
            (c == "e") or (c == "E") or
            (c == "i") or (c == "I") or
            (c == "o") or (c == "O") or
            (c == "u") or (c == "U"))
 
# Extracting all the maximum length
# sub-Strings that contain only vowels.
def vowelSubStrings(params):
    Str = ""
     
    # Using map to remove identicals
    # subStrings. e.g. AiotrfAio has 2 "Aio".
    map = dict()
    for i in range(len(params)):
        subString = params[i:i + 1]
        if (isVowel(subString)):
            Str += subString
        else:
             
            # Storing a subString only if
            # it is not empty.
            if (len(Str) > 0):
                map[Str] = True
            Str = ""
 
    if (len(Str) > 0):
        map[Str] = True
    return map
 
# Function to generate all unique subStrings
# containing only vowels
def generateVowelSubStrings(params):
 
    subStringMap = vowelSubStrings(params)
    map = dict()
    # map iterator.
    for [key,val] in subStringMap.items():
        x = key
         
        # For each subString stored in map
        # generate all possible subStrings.
        for i in range(len(x)):
            for Len in range(1,len(x) - i + 1):
               
                # Storing the generated
                # subString if it is
                # absent in the map.
                map[x[i: i+Len]] = True
    for [key,val] in map.items():
       
        # Printing all values in map.
        print(key)
 
# Driver code
Str = "GeeksForGeeks"
generateVowelSubStrings(Str)
 
# This code is contributed by shinjanpatra


C#




/*package whatever //do not write package name here */
// C# code to implement the above approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
public class GFG
{
 
  // Function to check if a character is vowel
  public static bool isVowel(char ch)
  {
    return (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e'
            || ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I'
            || ch == 'o' || ch == 'O' || ch == 'u'
            || ch == 'U');
  }
   
  // Function to check whether
  // string contains only vowel
  public static bool isValid(string s)
  {
    int n = s.Length;
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
       
      // Check if the character is
      // not vowel then invalid
      if (!isVowel(s[i]))
        return false;
    }
    return true;
  }
 
  // Function for generating unique substrings of vowels.
  public static void generateVowelSubstrings(string str)
  {
 
    Dictionary<string, bool> map
      = new Dictionary<string, bool>();
     
    // Generate all subString of s
    for (int i = 0; i < str.Length; i++) {
      string temp = "";
      for (int j = i; j < str.Length; j++) {
        temp += str[j];
 
        // If temp contains only vowels
        if (isValid(temp)) {
 
          // store it only if substring is absent
          // in map.
          if (!map.ContainsKey(temp))
            map[temp] = true;
        }
      }
    }
    foreach(String i in map.Keys)
    {
 
      // printing all unique substring.
      Console.WriteLine(i);
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
  public static void Main(string[] args)
  {
    string str = "GeeksForGeeks";
    generateVowelSubstrings(str);
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by gauravrajput1


Javascript




<script>
    // JavaScript code to implement above approach
 
    // Function to check if a character is vowel
    const isVowel = (c) => {
     
        // Checking for vowels.
        return ((c == "a") || (c == "A") ||
            (c == "e") || (c == "E") ||
            (c == "i") || (c == "I") ||
            (c == "o") || (c == "O") ||
            (c == "u") || (c == "U"));
    }
 
    // Extracting all the maximum length
    // sub-strings that contain only vowels.
    const vowelSubstrings = (params) => {
        let str = "";
 
        // Using map to remove identicals
        // substrings. e.g. AiotrfAio has 2 "Aio".
        let map = {};
        for (let i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
            let subString = params.substring(i, i + 1);
            if (isVowel(subString)) {
                str += subString;
            }
            else {
 
                // Storing a substring only if
                // it is not empty.
                if (str.length !== 0)
                    map[str] = true;
                str = "";
            }
        }
        if (str.length !== 0)
            map[str] = true;
        return map;
    }
 
    // Function to generate all unique substrings
    // containing only vowels
    const generateVowelSubstrings = (params) => {
        let substringMap = vowelSubstrings(params);
        let map = {};
         
        // map iterator.
        for (let itr in substringMap) {
            let x = itr;
 
            // For each substring stored in map
            // generate all possible substrings.
            for (let i = 0; i < x.length; i++)
            {
                for (let len = 1; len <= x.length - i; len++)
                {
                 
                    // Storing the generated
                    // substring if it is
                    // absent in the map.
                    map[x.substring(i, i + len)] = true;
                }
            }
        }
        for (let itr in map)
        {
         
            // Printing all values in map.
            document.write(`${itr}<br/>`);
        }
    }
 
    // Driver code
    let str = "GeeksForGeeks";
    generateVowelSubstrings(str);
 
// This code is contributed by rakeshsahni
 
</script>


Output

o
ee
e

Time Complexity: O(N2)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)

 


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